O

Tanczos Istvan
blue.tyger@eastkingdom.org

23 February 2006

Unto the Elisabeth Laurel, Jeanne Marie Wreath, Margaret Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Blue Tyger Herald!

It is the intent of Easterners to register the following items. Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity and allows any changes.


Collin Monro of Tadcaster

1 Collin Monro of Tadcaster (m) - New Name & New Device
Argent, a pithon and on a chief sable three Maltese crosses argent.

No major changes.

Black s.n. Colin shows Collen 1646, and R&W s.n. Collin have John Collin 1221, which is very likely an unmarked patronymic.

Black s.n. Munro shows de Monro several times in the 14-15c.

Watts p. 598 under Tadcaster dates the header spelling "from 1269" (meaning from that date forward). The no-photocopy sources cite only early forms: Mills has Tatecastre 1086, and Ekwall adds Tathecastre c. 1150 and Tadecastre 1212 (s.n. Tadcaster in both).

The name was changed at kingdom from Collin Monroe of Tadcaster to better match the submitted documentation. Commenters could find no evidence for the spelling Collin as a period given name. The spelling Monroe appears to be the modern form.


2 Cristoforus de Hastings (m) - New Name

The client requests authenticity for 12th to 14th century English.

'Cristoforus' is a variation of 'Christopher' listed in Withycombe pp 65-66 dated to a poll tax in 1379.

'Hastings' is a settlement on Sussex coast (England) well-established by 1066 which still exists today. Watts s.n. Hastings has Hastinges 1086-1428, Hasting 12th-16th c., and Hastyngs 1342, among others. Mills, Ekwall, and Reaney & Wilson repeat Hastinges 1086 and Hasting 1130.

Submitted as Cristoforus of Hastings. Based on Hastyngs and the common interchange of 'y' and 'i' in English, the submitted spelling seems plausible. Commenters unanimously favored de as the more authentic documentary form of the preposition, matching the Latinized given name.


Doucette de Verdun

3 Doucette de Verdun - New Badge
(Fieldless) A fleur-de-lys within and conjoined to a horseshoe gules.

The submitter's name was registered in December of 2004 (via the East)


Dwynwen of Padstow

4 Dwynwen of Padstow - Resub Device
Per fess engrailed argent and azure, a sea-wolf counterchanged sable and argent maintaining a rose sable slipped and leaved vert, in canton a grenade sable flamed gules.

The submitter's name was registered in November 2002, via the East. The submitter's original device submission, 'Per fess engrailed argent and azure, a seawolf rampant counterchanged sable and argent maintaining a rose sable slipped and leaved vert', was returned at that time for conflict with James Addison of Woolpit, 'Per fess wavy argent and azure, a sea-wolf erect counterchanged sable and argent, scaly vert' on the November 2002 LoAR. This submission features the addition of a charge group.

The addition of the gules flame on the grenade puts the complexity count at 8. The EK CoH felt that this device is simple enough that this is not an issue.


Edmund Patterson

5 Edmund Patterson - New Device
Vert, on a bend sinister between two stag's heads erased argent, three crosses couped palewise sable.

The name was registered in February 2005, via the East.


6 Efa ferch Cynan (f) - New Name

The client requests authenticity for 12th century Welsh.

'Efa' is from Gruffudd, p35, which dates the name to 1160.

'Cynan' in same, dated to 1060, 1174, 1242. Both names are also in The Compleat Anachronist #66, "A Welsh Miscellany", by Heather Rose Jones, p 30-31.

Submitted as Efa verch Cynan, the given name was documented from one Efa ferch Madog ap Maredudd. CA #66 also has ferch, so the submitted spelling has been changed to match the documentation.


Eldrich Gaiman

7 Eldrich Gaiman - New Device
Barry wavy ermine and sable.

The submitter's name was registered on the October 2004 LoAR along with a badge, '(Fieldless) Three dice one and two conjoined argent spotted sable', and a device, 'Per pale vert and sable, a dragon segreant maintaining a chess-rook, a double tressure argent', which was changed to a badge upon the registration of another device, 'Per pale counter-ermine and vairy argent and vert', on the December 2004 LoAR. Upon the successful registration of this device, the submitter releases both his current device and his original device (now a badge).


8 Elinor Strangewayes and Ulrich von Dunkelberg - New Joint Household Name
Submitted Name: House Strangeways

No changes.

Both 'Elinor Strangewayes' and 'Ulrich von Dunkelberg' were registered in September 2005, via the East. R&W s.n. Strangeway dates the desired spelling to 1513. It follows the pattern of names of Scottish Clans such as 'Clan Stewart' and/or ruling dynasties, such as 'House Anjou,' both cited in RfS III.2.b.iv. and both of which are based on surnames. Strangewayes is grandfathered to Elinor as a surname. Documentation for the name on the East Kingdom May 2005 LoI read:

Reaney & Wilson s.n. 'Strangeway, Strangeways, Strangways, Strangwick' dates 'Strangeways' to 1513 and 'Strangways' to 1527. The submitted spelling is found in "Faire Names for English Folk: Late Sixteenth Century English Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/christian/fairnames/surnames.html#list ) by Chris Laning (Christian de Holacombe).


9 Felipe de Bordeu (m) - New Name

Felipe is found in Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ).

Bordeu is dated to 1280 in Dauzat & Rostaing p. 98 s.n. Bordeaux.

Submitted as Fillipe de Bordeaux, the name was changed to better match the available documentation and to comply with the request for authenticity. (The desired language and culture have been assumed to be 13th c. French, matching the documentation for the given name.) Bordeaux was documented as 'a city and a region in southwest France most noted for its wine trade, claimed by Henry II of England when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine.'


Gabriel of Maccuswell

10 Gabriel of Maccuswell - Resub Device
Per bend sinister argent and sable, a winged trumpet counterchanged all within a bordure embattled vert.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 2001 via the East. The submitter's previous submission was returned on the June 2004 LoAR for unidentifiability. This submission is a redraw featuring artwork copied from the submitter's currently registered badge, '(Fieldless) A winged trumpet palewise Or.', which was registered in March of 2001.


11 Galefridus Peregrinus (m) - New Name

'Galefridus' is a form of 'Geoffrey' found twice in this spelling in Talan Gwynek's "Given Names from Early 13th Century England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng13/eng13.html ).

'Peregrinus' is found in R&W s.n. 'Pilgrim', which has a 'Hugo peregrinus' dated to 1189-98. Also, Jeanne Marie Lacroix's "Misplaced Names found in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/misplacednames.htm ) lists the name dated to 1189-98.


12 Iustinos Branov (m) - New Name

The client requests authenticity for 13th century Byzanto-Russian. The submitter prefers the spellings 'Iustinos' or 'Iustins', but will accept 'Iustin'.

'Iustinos' is found in Bardas Xiphias's "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the 6th and 7th Centuries" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/early_byz_names.html ). The article actually has Iustinus, not Iustinos, but this article is known to Latinize names.

'Branov' - Neither the online nor the paper versions of Wickenden actually list Branov: there's Bran 1107, Brankovich 1388, Brankovik 1330, Brankovitsch 870, and Brantsevich 1566. Branov should be fine as a constructed patronymic: see for example Evanov, Ivanov' late 14c. (Wickenden s.n. Ioann).

This still leaves the question of Byzantine Greek combined with Russian. The languages are written in different alphabets, so such a combination is unlikely to be authentic. Wickenden s.n. Iustin has Iustin 13-14c., making Iustin Branov a fine Russian name of roughly the desired time period. Nevertheless, the name is being forwarded as submitted, in the hope that the CoA can work some magic for the "Byzanto-" part of the authenticity request.


13 Jenievre McDermot (f) - New Name

No major changes.

Jenievre appears as one of the many variants of "Guenevere" at p. 113 of Louis-Fernand Flutre: Table des Noms Propres avec Toutes Leurs Variantes Figurant dans les Romans du Moyen Age Ecrits en Francais ou en Provencal et Actuellement Publies ou Analyses (Poitiers: Centre d'Etudes Superieures de Civilisation Medievale, 1962).

McDermot is in Heather Rose Jones (SCA: Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn), 14th to 16th Century Irish Names and Naming Practices: Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century) (1999) ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/lateirish/ormond.html), which lists 2 instances of "Dermot" as a given name in an Irish context. This article also lists several "Mc[name]" patronymics.

There does not appear to be precedent on combining French with Anglicized Irish; both French plus Gaelic and French plus Scots have been ruled one step from period practice, but registerable (Maura macPharlain 02/00 R-Atlantia, and Maura MacLeod 09/01 A-AEthelmearc).


John Willams

14 John Williams - New Name & New Device
Argent, on a chevron azure three fleurs-de-lis argent, in a base a stag's head cabossed gules.

The submitter's name was returned at kingdom for conflict with the modern composer, 'John Williams'. This is apparently intended as an appeal of that decision. Though the appeal is not properly constructed, as it does not address the reason for return, we're forwarding it anyway.

Karen Larsdatter's "An Index to the 1523 Subsidy Roll for York and Ainsty, England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york16/index.htm ) lists 203 occurrences of 'John' and 209 occurrences of 'Willam'. Karen Larsdatter's "An Index to the 1296 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Rutland, England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Rutland/index.htm ) lists 164 occurrences of 'John' and 248 occurrences of 'William'. Talan Gwynek's "Given Names from Early 13th Century England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng13/eng13.html ) lists 126 occurrences of 'William' and 70 occurrences of 'John'. Talan Gwynek's "Late 16th Century English Given Names" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng16/eng16.html ) lists 1215 occurrences of 'Jon' and 786 occurrences of 'William'.

The East Kingdom CoH believes that this is still in conflict with the mundane composer John Williams, holder of five academy awards (45 nominations, tied for the most ever by a single individual), two Emmys, three Golden Globes, and 18 Grammys. For more information on the composer, please see http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0002354/bio . It may also conflict with John Williams, a classical and folk guitarist, though he is much less well known.


15 Katherine de Staverton (f) - New Name

'Katherine' is in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html ) which dates this spelling to 1316 s.n. 'Curzon', to 1392 s.n. 'Bathurst', to 1510 s.n. 'Wenborn', to 1516 s.n. 'Chipperfield', to 1697 s.n. 'Elesende'. This spelling also found dated to 1420 in Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ).

'Staverton' is a place name found in A Dictionary of English Place-Names by A.D. Mills, p.325. Also found as a surname dated to 1430 in Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ).

The locative marker, 'de', appears to continue to appear in English surnames well into the 1500s, see e.g. Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ).


16 Konrad von Altorff (m) - New Name

No major changes.

'Konrad'is in Talan Gwynek's "Late Period German Masculine Given Names" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/germmasc.html ). It is also in Hans Bahlow's (translated by Edda Gentry) Dictionary of German Names p. 279, s.n. 'Konrad'.

'Altorff' is a form of 'Altdorf', capital of Uri canton of Switzerland, the site of Capuchin monastery in 1581. Submitter has provided maps indicating that the period spelling of the town name was Altorff, and would very much like to use this spelling. Brechenmacher p. 24 s.n. Altorf dates Altorf to 1333, and says it's a simplification of Altdorf "old village". For use of double 'f', see for example Dorffel 1454 ibid s.n. Dorfel, and Dorffelenus 1582 s.n. Dörfler.

'von' is a locative marker.


17 Luc de Montnoir (m) - New Name

Dauzat has Luc as an undated header form. It also says that it is a baptismal name and patronym, a form of 'Lucas', and is the name of an Evangelist. Morlet's Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille, s.n. Luc, says exactly the same, but also says that it "represents the Greek 'Loukas', who was, traditionally, the writer of the 3rd Gospel of the Acts of the Apostles (in the 1st Century AD), a companion of St. Paul." (The text is "représetant le grec Loukas qui serait, selon la tradition, le rédacteur du 3e évangile et des Actes des apôtres (1er s. après J.Christ), compagnon de Saint Paul."). Morlet's Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de l'Ancienne Gaule, Vol III - les Noms de Personne Contenus dans les Noms de Lieux, in the first part, "Les Noms Latins ou Transmis par le Latin", p 120, s.n. Lucas, says "Saint-Luc, con d'Evreux (Eure): Sanctus Lucas, 1248; eccl. de Sancto Luca, env. 1370." We can not, however, find 'Luc' actually dated anywhere.

The EK CoH believes that Montnoir is a plausible constructed placename. Dauzat & Rostaing p. 471 s.n. Mons (in the "colors" subsection) mention an undated Montner, from Latin nigrus, which they translate as "noir" (dark), along with quite a few dated mont + color placenames: de Monteblanco c. 1200, Mons blancus 1197, de Montebrunno 1272, Mont Clar 1343, Montisclari 1233, de Monteclar 1213, de Monteclaro 1168, Montauban 1186, de Rubeo Monte 12c., Montvert 1275.

Note that use of the article 'de' is also contained in that documentation.


Lysebet van der Wilgen

18 Lysebet van der Wilgen (f) - New Name & New Device
Gules, on a bend sinister sable fimbriated argent between a talbot passant and a willow branch couped Or, three mullets of eight points argent.

No major changes. The client requests authenticity for the period 1350-1450. Documentation is taken from Academy of St. Gabriel report #3036 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/3036 ). The report cites Lysebet from Kees Nieuwenhuijsen: "Given Names in the Low Lands 1250-1300" (http://www.keesn.nl/name13/) and Aryanhwy merch Catmael: "Dutch Names 1358-1361" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/dutch/earlydutch14.html ), and dates van der Wilgen to 1488-9 based on Antoine Janssens: "Nieuwe gegevens over het kasteel van Nevele" ( http://home.scarlet.be/~lvnevele/artikelen/1973_1.htm ).


Maximilian Gunn

24 Maximilian Gunn - New Device
Sable, in pale a heart and a chain of three links the center one fracted to base argent.

The submitter has a letter of permission to conflict from Solondra Carryl, who bears 'Sable, a heart argent' (December 1983 via Meridies)


Moira of Kildare

25 Moira of Kildare (f) - New Name & New Device
Per saltire purpure and Or, a fret counterchanged.

No major changes. The client requests authenticity for 166th century Irish and cares most about the language and/or culture.

'Moira' is in OCM, which says that it is an Anglicized form of Márie;, which occurred as a lady of the Bassetts of the Glynns of Antrim in the 14th century, and occasionally among the MacSweenys and Burkes in the 16th century. Unfortunately, the dates in OCM refer to an unspecified Gaelic form of Mary, not to the Anglicized form Moira. Flanagan & Flanagan p. 80 under Máire date the header spelling to 1532 and 1561.

Flanagan p. 53 s.n. Cill lists Kildare as the anglicized form of Cell Daro, and on p. 67 s.n. Dair as the anglicized form of Cill Dara, both meaning "church of the oak", but gives no dates.

We are sending this up so that somebody with more Gaelic experience can possibly help.


Nicola Angelini

26 Nicola Angelini (f) - New Name & New Device
Gules on a bend between two standing seraphs affronty argent, three quatrefoils gules.

'Niccola' appears in Arval Benicoeur's "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/ ). Talan Gwynek's "14th Century Venetian Personal Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/ ) list several names that are pet forms. The Masculine form, 'Nicolo', is found spelled with a single 'c' in David Herlihy, R. Burr Lichfield, Anthony Molho, & Roberto Barducci's "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/ ).

'Angelini': two instances of this surname are recorded in David Herlihy, R. Burr Lichfield, Anthony Molho, & Roberto Barducci's "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/ ).


Pascual de la Mar

27 Pascual de la Mar - New Device
Per bend gules and azure, two hammerhead sharks naiant in annulo argent.

The submitter's name was registered in October 2004, via the East. We note that this is not the first registration of hammerhead sharks. Daemon Broussard registered Argent, two hammerhead sharks naiant in annulo surrounding a rose, on a chief sable three Latin crosses botonny argent. in July 1998, via Atlantia.


Philadelphia Brown

28 Philadelphia Brown (f) - New Name & New Device
Gyronny Or and gules, a brown mare rampant proper.

No major changes. The client requests authenticity for 16th century English.

Withycombe p. 244 s.n. Philadelphia says it "became a favourite Puritan name (Bardsley says he found no fewer than 100 examples of it in James I's reign)". This puts the name in the gray area.

Neither R&W nor Bardsley have a late-period form of Brown (their latest cites are le Browne 1318 and Broune 1379, respectively), but Julian Goodwyn's "Brass Enscription Index" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/) dates Brown to 1522.

Jaelle of Armida provided the following further documentation: Bardsley's Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature mentions a Lady Philadelphia Carr who was buried in 1639; it is reasonable to believe that she was christened either in late period or immediately afterwards. Also, FK & S Hitching's References to English Surnames in 1601 has multiple citations for the surname Brown in that spelling.


29 Rosette de Rheims (f) - New Name

'Rosette' is a constructed name using '-ette', a French diminutive. From Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ), there are two instances of the name 'Rose'. From the same source, we find the diminutives as shown by 'Luce la Berote' and 'Lucete (une) chamberière', 'Mabile la plasrière' and 'Mabilete (une) niece', and 'Typhainne la cière' and 'Typhenete (une) chamberière'. Altough these examples only show construction of the diminutive with one 't', from Talan Gwynek's "Late Period Feminine Names from the South of France" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/latefrenchfem.html ) we find the following examples: 'Johanna' - 1514 (2), 'Johanetta' - 1357 (2), 'Johneta' - 1425 (2), 'Margarette' - 1528, 'Marguaritte' - 1528, 'Margot' - 1514, 'Maria' - 1514 (2), 'Marette' - 1528, 'Marieta' - 1435, 1514, 1521. The client is willing to accept 'Rosete' if 'Rosette' is unacceptable, and 'Rose' if necessary.

'Rheims' is a found in the Champagne region of France throughout period, as cited in attached copies from The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition ( http://www.bartleby.com/65/ ).Dauzat s.n. Reims marks Rheims as widespread, with a parenthetical "anc. orth."; Eastern commenters believe this means it's likely a period spelling. ("Ancient orthography")


Sergio da Verona

30 Sergio da Verona - New Device
Or, a wooden crossbow proper within a bordure invected gules.

The submitter's name was registered in Feburary 2005.


Sonja Ry{zv}aja

31 Sonja Ry{zv}aja (f) - Resub Name & Resub Device
Per pale sable and vert, a catamount salient contourny argent spotted sable within a bordure argent.

No major changes.

The original name submission 'Sonja Ryzaja' was returned on the June 2004 LoAR with the following comments: "The submitted name, Sonja Ryzaja, was transcribed using the International Phonetic transcription system as described on p. ix of Wickenden, Dictionary of Period Russian Names. However, the submitter appears to have confused the transcription for the 8th character, {zv}--z-hachek, for that of the 9th character in the table, z. This transcription system gives Sonja Ry{zv}aja as the correct form of this name. We would change it to this form, but she will not accept any changes. Therefore, we are forced to return it." This submission changes the name to the suggested spelling and allows for minor changes.

Submitted at kingdom as Sonja Ryzvaja, the Da'ud notation for z-hachek has been corrected.

Her previous armory submission, Per pale sable and vert, a catamount rampant contourny argent spotted sable within an orle argent. was returned for conflict with John Paul Blacklore: Gyronny of ten sable and Or, a lion rampant to sinister reguardant within an orle argent. The resubmission has changed the orle to a bordure, which gives a CD for the field and a CD for the change of type of secondary.


Theobald Hafoc

32 Theobald Hafoc (m) - New Name & New Device
Vert, a hawk contourny wings addorsed argent and in chief a flame proper.

No major changes.

Withycombe p. 277 under Theobald dates Theobaldus to 1199-1220, 1303, etc. R&W under Theobald also have Teobald 1086, among others.

'Hafoc' is from R&W., which reads: "Osbertus filius Hauoc c. 1115 is probably to be identified with Osbern Hauoc. His father bore the OE name of Hafoc 'hawk'." The 'hawk' word seems to be more usually spelled with a 'u' or 'v' rather than an 'f'; Hafoc seems to be a scholarly, normalized form. However, Watts s.n. Hawksworth dates on Hafeces-weorðe c. 1030, so we believe the submitted version is a plausible early spelling.


This makes, by my count, 17 new names, 12 devices, 1 badge, and 1 household name, for a total of 31 paid actions. In addition, there is 1 resubmitted name and 3 resubmitted devices, for a total of 4 resubmissions, and a grand total of 35 actions. A check for $124 will be forwarded separately.

Until next month, I remain,

Istvan, Blue Tyger


Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans; translated by Edda Gentry. Dictionary of German Names, 2nd ed. Max Kade Institute, Madison, Wisconsin, 2002.

Bardsley, Charles Wareing. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Oxford University Press, London, 1901.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. New York Public Library, 1989.

Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen. C.A. Starke-Verlag, Limburg, 1957-60.

Dauzat, Albert and Marie-Thérèse Morlet. Dictionnaire Étymologique des noms de famille et prénoms de France. Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1989.

Dauzat, Albert et Charles Rostaing. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France. Paris, 1963.

Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Fourth edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991.

Flanagan, Deirdre & Laurence Flanagan. Irish Place Names. Gill & MacMillan. Dublin, 1994.

Flanagan, Laurence. Favourite Irish Names for Children. Gill & MacMillan, Dublin, 1993.

Flutre, Louis-Fernand. Table des Noms Propres avec toutes leurs Variantees Figurant dans les Romans du Moyen Ages Écrits en Français ou en Provençal et Actuellement Publiés ou Analysés . Centre D'Études Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale. Poitiers, France: 1962.

Hitchings, F.K. and S; References to English Surnames in 1601 . Walton-on-Thames, C.A. Bernau, 1910

Gruffudd, Heini. Enwau Cymraeg I Blant. Welsh Names for Children. Y Lolfa Cyf. Wales, 1980.

Jones, Heather Rose. A Welsh Miscellany. Compleat Anachronist #66, 1993.

Mills, A.D. A Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991.

Ó Corraín, Donnchadh and Fidelma Maguire. Irish Names. Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.

Paul Wickenden of Thanet. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. 3rd edition. SCA, Inc., 2000.

Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Third edition, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Watts, Victor. The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Third edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979.