[SEAL] Tanczos Istvan
blue.tyger@eastkingdom.org

24 June 2006


Aeschine Kamerum
de Lochabyr1. Aeschine Kamerum de Lochabor (f) - New name & new device

Argent, a griffin segreant contourny vert, and on a chief sable, three crescents argent.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning 'Aeschine Cameron of Lochaber'. She requests authenticity for 12th-14th c. Scotland.

Black p. 432 s.n. Liulf dates Aeschine to 1160, with the spelling Eschina dated a decade later, both referring to the same person. This information comes from Talan Gwynek's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html ) which says: c.1160 = Eschina; c. 1170 (LIULF, 432).

'Kamerum' is found in Black,, p 128, as (de) Kamerum, dated 1214-49.

de Lochabor is a Latinized version of her father's name, Seumas Camshronaich an Lochabair (An Tir, 08/94). As Lochaber is a district in which a number of clans reside without claiming overall sovereignty, the locative was judged not presumptuous. Johnston's Place-Names of Scotland s.n. Lochaber dates Lochabor to 1297 and Lochabre to 1309. The submitted byname has therefore been changed from de Lochabyr to de Lochabor to match this documentation, and to bring the date for the byname closer to the rest of the name.

Commenters wondered whether a name using both "Cameron" and "of Lochaber" in a Lowland context is plausible: according to Black p. 128 s.n. Cameron, this name was used as a descriptive byname only in Highland, Gaelic contexts; in the Lowlands, it was a place name, so combining it with another locative seems odd. However, similar constructions do occur in English names, where the first locative is usually an inherited surname, while the second one is essentially an address. Eastern Crown doesn't know when inherited surnames came into use in Scotland, so is deferring to the greater wisdom of the CoH on this question.


2. Annora Penrose (f) - New name

Annora is from Withycombe, p. 147-48, s.n. "Honor" which dates this spelling to 1187-1215, 1273, 1302, 1316.

Penrose is from R&W, p345, s.n. Penrose. The dated spelling is "de Penros" (1195) but the submitter prefers the header spelling. Bardsley p. 596 s.n. Penrose dates the spelling "Penrose" to 1611 and 1619. Also, Hitching & Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602, lists the spelling Penrose on p. liv.


3. Arnóra Leifsdóttir (f) - New name

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the sound. She notes further: Please preserve the spelling of 'Arnóra', but adjust 'Leifsdóttir' if needed.

Arnóra is found on p. 7, and Leifr on p. 13 of Geirr Bassi. Leifr + dóttir = 'daughter of Leifr'.


Avelon de
Lunéville 4. Avelon de Lunivilla (f) - New name & new device

Purpure, a zebra rampant proper and in chief three increscents Or.

No major changes. The form says: 'See attached e-mail forwarded from the Academy of St. Gabriel for documentation of Avelon.' The email is not actually from the Academy, but from the submitter, apparently summarizing communication with the Academy.

Avelon is intended as an alternative diminutive of a name found as "Aveline" and "Avelot" in the 1292 Census of Paris, based on names such as "Alison", "Alizon", "Aghesson", "Haubergon", "Marion", "Odyon", and "Eudon." There is also a cite of Morlet's Etude d'anthroponymie picarde, p. 29, but it is unclear what information is found in this source. Morlet vol. I p. 48 under Awi- has Avalonia and Avelonia (no specific dates discernible); Avelon seems a plausible vernacular form of this name.

Lunéville is documented from Muir's Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, Ninth Edition (R.F. Treharne and Harold Fullard, ed., Barnes & Noble Inc., no date of publication discernible from the photocopies), where it appears on a map titled "Germany about the year 962 A.D." Lunéville is an undated header form on p. 417 of Dauzat & Rostaing; dated forms include Lienatis villa 1043, Lunaris villa 1135, and Lunivilla 1157. The submitted surname has been changed from de Lunéville to de Lunivilla in order to match this documentation.


Avice de Haliach5. Avice de Haliach (f) - New name & new device

Per bend azure and sable, six mullets of eight points and an oak tree eradicated argent.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning.

Avice is found in Talan's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html), dated to 1275 (s.n. Lank), 1279 (s.n. Woodfull), 1296 (s.n. Hide), 1311 (s.n. Shepard), and 1327 (s.n. Austen). It's also found in Karen Larsdatter's "An Index to the 1296 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Rutland, England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Rutland/index.htm ), and there's an "Avice la mestresse" in Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ).

"de Haliach" is found in Reaney & Wilson p. 236 under the header 'Holyoak', with "Gerard de Haliach" dated to 1188. Ekwall s.n. Holy Oaks, p. 247 dates Haliach 1187, Halyok 1396.


6. Brianna McBain - Appeal of household name
Submitted Name: Clan McBain

This household name was returned on the East's October 2005 Letter of Decision (dated January 11, 2006) for presumption against the modern Clan McBain. The letter of permission to conflict, from the current chief of the clan, was deemed irrelevant per Laurel precedent. In this appeal, the submitter states: "The only individual (Hughston McBain) who truly has rights to the name 'clan McBain' has already granted us express permission in writing, to assume that name within the SCA. (I am a real life registered member of that clan.) There are already countless SCA households who presume such names (Clan Stewart, Clan Campbell, etc) without any justification. We have gone to the effort of securing express permission and authority to use that clan name. We should not be penalized for it. If it is deemed absolutely necessary, we will accept a modifier, 'Clan McBain of Harlaw' but even that is under protest."

As Eastern Crown wrote in the original return, the issue here is not conflict, but presumption: will people perceive use of this name as a claim to status that has not been earned? The current clan chief can give all the permissions he wants, but he cannot change the perceptions of large groups of people. Presumption depends to great degree on both the fame and status of the name in question: if there was, say, a count named X Y in period, but nobody's ever heard of him, then using the name X Y is not necessarily presumptuous; but if X Y was a king -- no matter how little-known -- then calling yourself X Y is seen as a claim to royalty. Laurel precedent has deemed all Scottish clans to be important enough for the use of their names to be presumptuous. As kingdom commenters noted, neither "Clan Stewart" nor "Clan Campbell" are registered in the SCA, and in all likelihood, they couldn't be.

Adding a locative or other modifier that's unrelated to the real-life clan can clear the appearance of presumption. "Harlaw" should work: neither Ian Grimble's Scottish Clans and Tartans nor Robert Bain's The Clans and Tartans of Scotland mentions a McBain of Harlaw. (Bain p. 148 says there was a battle at Harlaw in 1411 in which the MacBains took part, but that's a one-time thing and shouldn't affect the issue at hand.) Black p. 343 s.n. Harlaw dates the spelling Harlaw to 1528, 1604, and 1609, and de Harlawe to 1296.


Brianna McBain 7. Brianna McBain - New guild name & new badge
Submitted Name: Saint Bavon's Company of Falconry

(Fieldless) A falcon close sustained by a sinister gloved fist fesswise argent.

The documentation reads: "Saint Bavon's Company of Falconry is a chartered guild for the research and practice of falconry. Attached is a copy of our Charter signed by TRMs Darius and Roxane of the East. We are an inter-kingdom fellowship, and are currently being chartered in other kingdoms as well. Saint Bavon (also: Bavo) was born near Liege, c. 589, died near Ghent, Belgium c 654. He was a Flemish nobleman and Saint Bavon's Cathedral in Ghent was founded in the 12th century in his honor. He is commonly accepted as the patron saint of falconry (having been a falconer himself) and so is a fitting patron for our company." (A printout is attached of the Bavo page from the Patron Saints Index, at http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintb34.htm.)

>The online Catholic Encyclopedia under Ghent ( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06542) indicates that if nothing else, the Abbey of Saint-Bavon is certainly period, its monks having been secularized in 1536. The saint it was named for is apparently more commonly known as St. Bavo.

"Surnames in 15th Century York" by Karen Larsdatter ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york15/surnames-alphabetical.htm) has one instance of Faunconer, and her "Bynames Found in the 1296 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Rutland, England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Rutland/occupations.htm) has one instance of Facouner.

Nobody seems to have documented this as fitting a pattern of guild names, please help.


Ciarán mac
Cionath8. Ciarán mac Cionaith (m) - New name & new device

Quarterly vert and argent, four cats salient counterchanged.

No major changes.

Ciaran is from OCM, which lists 26 saints with this name on p 51.

Ibid s.n. Cinaed has 'Cinaed mac Irgalaig' 724-28, 'Cinaed mac Aílpin' 860, which Blue Tyger is going to assume is lenited into the surname. The surname can also be found in Mari's" Index of Names in Irish Annals" under Cinaed ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Cinaed.shtml), which lists an Echtighern, mac Cionaith 951; the spelling of the patronymic has been changed from mac Cionath in order to match this documentation.


9. Constance Evyngar (f) - New name

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about c. 1520 English language/culture.

Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/) dates Constance to 1581 in the feminine names section, and Evyngar to 1535 in the surnames section, both from Middlesex. Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html) says that Constance is dated to 1279 under 'Hoblet'. The Academy of S. Gabriel has responded to a few Constance inquiries, in report numbers 1558, 2175, 1610, 2373, and 1851 (see http://www.s-gabriel.org/#, replacing the '#' with the report number). These all support 'Constance', or a variation (usually 'Custance'), for the 12th through the 14th centuries. The submitter prefers the 'Constance' spelling, but she will accept 'Custance' if necessary for registration.


Deredere Cambroun
de Lochabyr10. Deredere Cambroun de Lochabor (f) - New name & new device

Per chevron argent and azure, two dragonflies sable and a natural seahorse argent.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning "Dierdre Cameron of Lochaber", and requests authenticity for 12th-14th c. Scotland.

'Deredere' is a form of Deirdre dated to 1166 in Talan Gwynek's "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html ).

Black pp. 128-9 under Cameron has (de) Cambroun dated 1296 and 1333.

The submitter has chosen a Latinized version of her father's name (Seumas Camshronaich an Lochabair, An Tir Aug. 1994). As Lochaber is a district in which a number of clans reside without claiming overall sovereignty, the locative was judged not presumptuous. Johnston's Place-Names of Scotland s.n. Lochaber dates Lochabor to 1297 and Lochabre to 1309. The submitted byname has therefore been changed from de Lochabyr to de Lochabor to match this documentation, and to bring the date for the byname closer to the rest of the name.

Documentaiton for Lochabyr was from 16th-17th c. references (Timothy Pont: Topographical Notices of Scotland circa 1610, http://www.lochiel.net/archives/arch180.html ). The documentation also mentions Jeffrey Stone: Illustrated Maps of Scotland from Blaeu's Atlas Novus of the 17th Century (London: Studio Editions Ltd. 1991), which apparently has 'Lochabyr' on a map on p. 69, and 'Lochabria' as the Latin, but no photocopies are included from this book.

Kingdom commenters wondered whether a name using both "Cameron" and "of Lochaber" in a Lowland context is plausible: according to Black p. 128 s.n. Cameron, this name was used as a descriptive byname only in Highland, Gaelic contexts; in the Lowlands, it was a place name, so combining it with another locative seems odd. However, similar constructions do occur in English names, where the first locative is usually an inherited surname, while the second one is essentially an address. Eastern Crown doesn't know when inherited surnames came into use in Scotland, so is deferring to the greater wisdom of the CoH.


des Dragonets, Le
Fief 11. Le Fief des Dragonets, Shire of - New group name & new group device

Or, on a dragon gules within a bordure embattled vert a laurel wreath argent.

The documentation reads:

Voici ce que j'ai trouvé dans le Dictionnaire des communes du Vaucluse de Robert Bailly, 1985 pages 276-278 : Au Sud la France, ŕ 4 miles au Sud de Bollene ŕ 10 Miles au Nord d.Orange, au village Mondragon Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. - Le Château fut construit par les Dragonet. - En 1143, Guillaume de Mondragon, fils de Dragonet, lui prętait hommage pour le Château. -Dragonet et Amalric de Mondragon, sont cités en 10. Donc, Dragonet est au départ le nom de la famille qui fit construire le Château.

This translates to:

This is what I found in the Dictionary of the towns of Vaucluse (Dictionnaire des communes du Vaucluse) by Robert Bailly from 1985 on pages 276-278; in the South of France, 4 miles South of Bollene and 10 miles North of Orange, in the village of Mondragon in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. - the Castle was built by the Dragonet - In 1143, Guillaume de Montdragon, son of Dragonet, gave him homage for the castle. -Dragonet and Amalric de Mondragon are cited in 10. So, Dragonet is initially the name of the family who built the castle.

Brunissende also found some information on the use of the word "fief" in medieval France. The Dictionnaire de l'Academie Française at http://atilf.atilf.fr/ under Fief dates the use of this word in its modern sense (though it's unclear in exactly what spelling) to the 10th century. Thus Le Fief des Dragonets, meaning "the fief belonging to the Dragonets", seems to be a plausible medieval French name of a place or area.

The name was submitted as des Dragonets, Le Fief, which lacks an approved group designator. The submitters apparently intended "Fief" as a translation of "Shire", but this has never been approved as an alternate branch designator. In fact, Eastern Crown can find no precedents approving any alternate branch designators. Adding a phrase (namely "Shire of") is a major change, which the form indicates they won't allow. However, correspondence with the group's herald reveals that they'd be happy with any registered name containing "Dragonet".


12. Eadric Wiglafson (m) - New Name

No major changes. He cares most about language and/or culture, and requests authenticity for pre-Conquest England (1050s Saxon) time period and language/culture. The submitter would like whichever form of the name meaning "Eadric, son of Wiglaf" is most authentic to pre-conquest England. The submitter asks the College's assistance in documenting whether 'Eadric Wiglafs sunu' is a more authentic form for a typical 11th century Saxon than the Norse-influenced 'Eadric Wiglafson'.

Eadric appears in Bede's A history of the English Church and People (731), cited at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/aelfwyn/bede.html.

Wiglaf was the name of the king of Mercia in 831-836, cited at http://www.anglo-saxons.net.

Searle has numerous examples of both Eadric (pp. 186-188, dated between c. 630 and c. 1110) and Wiglaf (p. 490, dated between c. 840 and 909).

The '-son' suffix was in use during the desired period thanks to Norse influence: Beorn Estrithson, earl of the Middle Angles (d. 1049) and Rögnvaldur Brúsason, earl of Orkney (ca 1037-46) are cited in Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England, published online by the University of Cambridge, UK at http://www.asnc.cam.ac.uk/pase. Then, of course, we have Harold Godwinson, last Anglo-Saxon king of England, died in 1066 (Withycombe, 3rd Ed., p. 146, under 'Harold'). The Old English version of the -son suffix appears to be 'sunu' - a chronicle of the Battle of Maldon lists a Wistan Ţurstanes sunu. Tengvik's Old English Bynames pp. 146-166 discusses patronymics in -sunu. Examples include (among many others) Ćlmćr Ćlfrices sunu c. 1015 (p. 149), Ćgelsige Byttices sunu c. 1055 (p. 151), Ćđelmćr Cola sunu 1046 (p. 153), and Manna Cenwaldes sunu 11c. (p. 152).


13. Engelhardt Buchhalter (m) - New Name

If his name must be changed, he cares most about an unspecified language and/or culture.

Bahlow/Gentry p. 105 s.n. Engelhard(t) says that this name is "the best known of all personal names with Engel-, promoted in the Middle Ages by a legend of friendship: Engelhard and Engeltrud, a courtly short epic." The spelling Engelhardt appears three times in Aryanhwy's "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/nurnberg1497.html).

Buchhalter is given as the German translation of 'book-keeper' or 'accountant', with a printout from Babelfish to attest to this. This does not appear to be a period concept. The closest that commenters could find is Schatzmann 'treasure-man; treasurer?' and Schatzer 'tax-collector', both found undated in Bahlow/Gentry p. 437 s.n. Schatz. The modern word, though, appears to closely resemble a period byname: Bahlow/Gentry p. 61 s.n. Buchhalter dates the spelling Buchhalder to 1351, and says it's a locative meaning "from the beech slope". Ibid p. 556 s.n. Winterhalter appears to date the header spelling to 1460, so the submitted 't' spelling seems a reasonable variant.

Submitted as Engelhardt Rosencreutz Buchhalter. All the available evidence suggests that 'Rosencreutz' was not used by real people in period: it was a unique byname associated with the semi-legendary founder of the Rosicrucian Order. Bynames that are unique to a particular person or literary figure are not registerable. Given the highly allegorical nature of the Chymical Wedding, the byname was not considered likely to be registerable via the literary name allowance, either. It has therefore been dropped from his name. It was documented from a printout from Wikipedia about Christian Rosenkreuz, the "possibly legendary founder of the Rosicrucian Order... In 1616 appears the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz in Strasbourg... which introduces for the first time the name Christian Rosenkreutz." ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Rosenkreuz, accessed 2/05/2006).


14. Esperanza Razzolini d'Asolo - Resub Household Name
Submitted Name: Villa Razzolini

The previously submitted household name La Casa della Croce a Fiori was returned by Laurel in May 2004 for lack of documentation that it follows period Italian inn name or household name practice. Language/culture are marked as most important; the specifics line says 'House Razzolini'. Authenticity is requested for 14th to 16th c. Italy. The documentation says that the submitter prefers 'villa' - country house, country seat, country villa, to 'casa' - house, home, residence, because 'casa' has the secondary meaning of 'family'. The form goes on to say: 'The family specific references attached show that there co-existed two houses called 'Villa Razzolini', one in Florence and one in Asolo, without geographical designators.' Attached printouts indeed show pictures of buildings, with accompanying text mentioning the name 'Razzolini', but the closest I can find to a date is the statement that one of the buildings 'first appears on the Florentine tax rolls in 1427'. Urls: http://web.jhu.edu/villa_spelman/ and http://www.asolo.it/turismo/monumneti/loredan.html(This link appears to no longer work).

The Online Etymological Dictionary ( http://www.etymonline.com/index.php) dates villa to 1611 in the desired meaning of "country house". It has been registered before as a household designator (Villa Verde, Antonio Franco di Milano, Nov. 1992 via the Middle). By precedent (June 1992 Cover Letter), family names can be used to form household names; Razzolini is the submitter's registered family name (Apr. 1994 via An Tir).


Eularia Trewe15. Eularia Trewe - New device

Argent, two chevrons purpure and overall a crow close contourny sable.

Her name is on the March 2006 East Kingdom Letter of Intent, which was decided at KWHSS this month and the decisions will be published in early September 2006.


Gavan MacBane16. Gavan MacBane (m) - New name & new device

Per bend sable and azure, a bend bevilled between two flames argent.

No major changes. The submitter cares most about early 16th century Manx language/culture.

'Gavan' is a spelling variant based on forms of Gavin listed in Arval Benicoeur's 'Concerning the names Gavin, Gawaine, Gavan, and Gabhainn' ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/problem/names/gavin.shtml). Citing Black and the manuscript Aberdeen Council Registers, this article includes the following spellings from lowland Scotland: Gavin (1477, 1577), Gavann (1501), Gavane (1502), Gavine (1519), Gavinn (1520, 1521), Gawane (1521, 1576), and Gawan (c.1550). Based on Gavann and Gawan, the variant Gavan seems reasonable.

'MacBane' is found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jonesmanx16.html). This article states that by the 16th century, the majority of given names used on the Isle of Man were of Anglo-Norman origin, while the majority of surnames were of Gaelic origin.

Some commenters worried that a combination of Lowland Scots with Manx might be considered one step from period practice, because Scots combined with Cornish, Gaelic, or Welsh has been ruled so. However, Gavan MacBane can also be documented as an entirely Scots name: Black p. 457 s.n. MacBean dates M'Bane 1513 and mc behan 1539; based on these and other Mac- names in Black, the submitted spelling seems plausible.


Giles of Burleigh17. Giles of Burleigh - New device

Vert, in pale three swords fesswise argent and a bordure argent semy of anvils sable.

His name was registered in Dec. 2004, via the East.


Gruffydd the
Innocent18. Gruffydd the Innocent - New device

Gules, a man statant to dexter maintaining a drawn bow and arrow within a bordure Or.

His name was registered in Nov. 1999, via the East. This device is clear of Migel Gneuyle de Normandie (May 1983 via the Middle): Gules, an old man statant affronty maintaining a sword and shield Or. There is a CD for the change in facing and a CD for the bordure.


Gwillim Kynith19. Gwillim Kynith - New Device

Or, a coney and a fox combattant within an orle gules.

His name was registered in Nov. 2004 via the East. This device is clear of James the Fox (July, 1971): Or, a fox rampant guardant gules. There is a CD for the addition of the primary coney and a CD for the addition of the secondary orle.


Hedewigis
Ockenfüß

20. Hedewigis Ockenfüß (f) - New name & new device

Argent, a decrescent and in chief three fir trees sable.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Swiss (German - Zurich area) language and/or culture.

'Hedewigis' is from Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch by Adolf Socin s.n. Hadewigis, pp. 55-56, dated in this spelling to 1247, 1248, 1286, and 1300.

'Ockenfüß' is from Dictionary of German Names by Hans Bahlow (translated by Edda Gentry) s.n. Ockenfuß;, which dates the spelling 'Okenfüß' to Rümlang near Zurich in 1357.

Commenters noted that per recent precedent, the byname in German feminine names should be either feminized (by adding an -in or -inne suffix) or put in the possessive. However, a random page-flip method search through Bahlow yielded several women's bynames that weren't feminized or possessive (e.g. Else Mussintopp 1428 p. 37 s.n. Mussgnug; Hedwig Irmeler 1428 p. 271 s.n. Irmler), so Eastern Crown is forwarding this name unchanged: perhaps more research is needed, to figure out exactly what factors are involved in determining the form of women's bynames in German.


Hedewigis
Ockenfüß 21. Hedewigis Ockenfüß - New badge

(Fieldless) On a decrescent argent, a fir tree sable.

The name appears above.


Helena aff
Osterholm22. Helena Osterholm (f) - New name & new device

Sable semy of roses Or, a fox passant reguardant contourny argent.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Finnish language/culture.

Submitted as Helena aff Osterholm, the preposition has been dropped per the submitter's request in further correspondence. No part of this name is actually Finnish, but it may be appropriate to a Swedish settler in Finland.

Helena is from "Vanhat nimityyppimme (Finnish Names)" by Rouva Gertrud ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/FinnishNamesArticle.htm) has one instance of this name, dated to 1498. Aryanhwy's "Swedish Feminine Given Names from SMP" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/smp/) includes multiple instances of various forms of this name, dated between c. 1100 and 1488; and "Swedish Feminine Names from c. 1300" by Lindorm Eriksson ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/swedish1300female.html) lists 10 instances of Helena as a given name.

Osterholm is a constructed German place name meaning 'small island lying to the east'. Bahlow/Gentry p. 359 s.n. Osterloh dates Osterlo to 1423, and says Oster- ('eastern') combines with numerous second elements: -brock, -brauk, -brink, -feld, -hues, -kamp, -holt, -wiesch, etc.; and p. 231 s.n. Holm ('small island') he dates Holm to 1298, and lists Bornholm, Dänholm, Engholm, and Lindholm. Helena was used in German (see for example Aryanhwy's "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497", http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/nurnberg1497.html), so Helena von Osterholm is a plausible German name. However, the submitter prefers not to have "von" in her name; if she must have a preposition, she would prefer the originally submitted "aff".

The genealogy website originally cited for her surname ( http://www.osterholm.info/) says that Osterholm was a 17th c. Swedish homestead settlement in western Finland. Eastern commenters have no resources for Swedish place names, so we couldn't come up with an earlier date. We suspect that the language and placenaming customs didn't significantly change between late period and the date of this homestead. We therefore ask the College's help.


23. Jaquelinne du Bois Blanc (f) - New name change
Current name: Jacques du Bois Blanc

Her current name was registered in August 1987 via the East. If this submission is successful, the submitter would like her current name to be released.

Jaquelinne is documented from Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ), which lists a "Jaquelinne l'Anquetine".

The surname is grandfathered to the submitter.


Jeremiah MacCoull24. Jeremiah MacCoull - New Device

Sable, three pallets wavy Or, overall two winged bulls combatant, wings addorsed, argent.

His name was registered in July 2005, via the East. This is clear of Ranulf fitzStephen de Acre (July 2000 Meridies): Sable, two bulls combattant argent by RfS X.1 (Addition of Primary Charges), since precedent states that "overall charges are not primary charges" (Ivo Blackhawk, Jan. 2002 A-Ansteorra).


Katryne Blak25. Katryne Blak - New device change

Argent, a fox passant gules within a bordure per saltire sable and gules.

Her name and current device, Argent, a fox rampant reguardant contourny gules within a bordure per saltire sable and gules, were registered in May 2005 via the East. If this device is registered, she wishes to release her old device.


Kiena Stewart26. Kiena Stewart - New device

Argent, a horse courant and on a chief embattled azure three triquetras argent.

Her name is item #19 on the East Kingdom's May 2006 Letter of Intent.


27. Kolbrandr húslangr (m) - New name

No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning, of the first name especially.

Kolbrandr is in Geirr-Bassi. , p 12.

Húslangr is found in Geirr Bassi, p. 23, as a byname meaning 'longhall-builder'.

Submitted as Kolbrandr Húslangr, the byname has been changed to lower-case to conform with current precedent (Thrandr surtr, 10/01 A-Atlantia).


Lilia de Vaux28. Lilia de Vaux (f) - New name & new device

Purpure, a lily and on a chief argent three pairs of rapiers inverted in saltire sable.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the sound.

'Lilia' is an undocumented variant of 'Lillia', which is dated 'a. 897' in Les Noms de Personne Sur Le Territoire de L'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Sičcle, Volumes I & II by Marie-Thérčse Morlet, vol. II p. 71.

'de Vaux' is dated to the Domesday Book (1086) in A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson s.n. "Vaus" p. 468. There's also a Philippe de Vaux as entry number 206 on page 11 of Michel Popoff: Armorial du Dénombrement de la Comté de Clermont en Beauvaisis, which is a collection of armory from Picardy between 1373 and 1376.

We believe that this name should not conflict with Lilian atte Valeye, registered Feb. 2005 via the East, since "Vaux" and "Valeye" look and sound quite different. The name conflict examples specifically mention that "Cum Barba" and "Withebeard" do not conflict, even though their meanings are equivalent.


Magdalena
Gdanska29. Magdalena Gdanska (f) - New name & new device

Per bend sinister gules and argent, an apothecary jar bendwise sinister and a cross bottony counterchanged.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about Polish or Slavic language/culture.

Talan Gwynek's "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm ) dates Magdalena to 1346. Walraven van Nijmege's "Hungarian Feminine Names" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/magfem2.html ) also has Magdalena. 'Polish Given Names in Nazwiska Polaków' by Walraven van Nijmegen and Arval Benicoeur ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/polish/ ) has Magdalena, Magdalina, Madlen (Magdalen).

Gdansk is mentioned as the original (10th century) name of a town in Poland in Atlas of Medieval Europe by Donald Matthew (Facts on File, Inc., New York, NY). Academy of S. Gabriel report 2633 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/2633) lists the following period cites for a byname meaning 'man from Gdansk': Gedansky 1429, Gdanczki 1438, Gdanzky 1446, and Gdanszky 1449, and says that for a feminine name, the final '-i' or '-y' becomes '-a'. (The report cites Taszycki, Witold: S{l/}ownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych, s.n. Gda{n'}ski, for the dated Gdanski cites.) Based on "Gedanska" and "Gdanzka", the submitted spelling seems reasonable.


Miklos Temesvari30. Miklos Temesvari - New device

Sable, in chief a dragon couchant Or and a gore Or papellony gules.

His name was registered in Nov. 2004 via the East.

There was some disagreement in commentary whether this conflicts with Caryl de Trecesson (Jan. 1974): Sable, a dragon dormant Or. There's definitely one CD for the gore, and theoretically another for moving the dragon, per the following precedent (Christoph von dem Schwarzwald, 09/90 A-Ansteorra): [a cross vs. a cross in chief between two gores] "There is a CVD for moving the cross to chief and another for addition of the gores" [implying that the move to chief isn't forced].


31. Norcastel, Shire of - New group name

No major changes. Norcastel (North Castle) is based on the Germanic man's name Nordo (which can be shortened to 'nor' in a place name, as in Norville), or the French adjective nord (North)' and Castel (castle, fortress).

Dauzat & Rostaing p. 501 s.n. Norville derives this from the Germanic masculine name Nordo and Latin villa. Under Castels p. 153-4, there's a category labeled "Par un nom de pers." (with a personal name); examples include Castel Rudenc 1176, based on the Germanic name Rading. Place Names using "castle" as a second element include Belcastel (D&R p. 61 s.n. Beauchastel: de Bello castro 1267) and Francastel (ibid p. 302 s.n. Francastel: Francastellum 1164, from adj. franc "free"). Based on these, Norcastel seems plausible as a constructed place name meaning either "Nordo's castle" or "northern castle".

Originally submitted as Castelnor, Shire of, this conflicts with Castle North, Canton of (registered 12/1987 via Caid). The group's alternatives after the preferred Castelnor, were, in order of preference, Castelnord, Castel Nord, or Norcastel. The first two alternatives would conflict just as much as the submitted version, so we have selected the final alternative.


32. Orzel Go{l/}aszewski herbu Ko{s'}cie{s'}z{a,} (m) - new name

If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning of Orzel, 'eagle', and the language/culture of 1580s Poland.

Eastern commenters don't have access to much by way of Polish name documentation; all they could do is confirm that "orzel" does appear to be modern Polish for "eagle". For what it's worth, Wickenden p. 250 shows the corresponding Russian word (orel) in use as a name in 16th century Russia. Since no amount of further consideration in-kingdom is going to turn up adequate documentation, We're forwarding this and begging the College's help.


Osgrim Iserbit33. Osgrim Iserbit (m) - Resub name & resub device

Or, a sword inverted gules between in chief two dragons combattant sable.

No major changes. His previously submitted name, Osgrim Schrökeisen, was returned by Laurel in Sep. 2005 because his surname spelling wasn't documentable, and he allowed no changes. The return also mentioned that the difference in both time and location between his given name and surname would likely make the combination unregisterable. This submission attempts to fix both problems by using a different, earlier, byname.

'Osgrim' is found as a variant of Asgrim (Ase + grim) in the Male Names section of Kees Nieuwenhuijsen's "Names in the Low Lands before 1150" ( http://www.keesn.nl/names/index.html ). According to the spreadsheet containing the raw data for this article, Osgrim was a commoner and a landowner in 920 who is mentioned in the Werdener Urbare. The References page of the above website says this document lists 'possessions of and donations to the abbey of Werden in Germany. Contains lots of names from the Low Lands, especially region North.' 'Iserbit' literally means 'iron-biter, iron-eater', and is a nickname for a pugnacious person. It's documented from an email sent to the Academy of St. Gabriel's email list by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen, quoting from Frans Debrabandere: Woordenboek van de Familienamen in Belgie en Noord-Frankrijk (Amsterdam & Antwerpen: L.J. Veen, 2003), which dates Gerardus Iserbit to 1187 in Ename (located in modern-day Belgium).

His previous device submission, Or, a sword inverted gules between two dragons combattant sable, was returned by Laurel in Sep. 2005 for conflict with Thomas Rumboll (Sep. 1994 via the West): Or, three dragons segreant sable. There is one CD for the change in arrangement, but because the dragons on Osgrim's device were judged to be co-primaries with the sword, there was no CD for changing the type and tincture (dragon to sword) of one item in the primary charge group. This submission clears that conflict by making the dragons clearly secondary charges.


Raffaella
Mascolo34. Raffaella Mascolo (f) - New name & new device

Argent, on a bend sinister within a bordure gules three mullets of six points palewise Or.

Raffaella is a hypothetical feminine form of 'Raffaello', which appears 381 times in the 'Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532', edited by David Herlihy, R. Burr Litchfield, and Anthony Molho ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/ ) and once in the Online Catasto of 1427 (as compiled by Ferrante LaVolpe in 'Italian Renaissance Men's Names', http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/ ). The Catasto has many examples of feminine names formed by substituting 'a' for the final 'o' of a masculine name, such as Antonio (m) - Antonia (f), Francesco - Francesca, Bartolomeo - Bartolomea, and Giovanni - Giovanna. (These examples are from Ferrante's 'Italian Renaissance Men's Names' and from Arval Benicoeur's 'Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427', http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/#alpha. )

Mascolo is taken from the Jesuit scientist Giovanni Battisti Mascolo (c. 1582-1656), who observed the eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (see http://libraries.luc.edu/about/exhibits/jesuits/1580.shtml ). The submitter is willing to accept "Mascola" if that is the more appropriate feminine form of the surname.


Rolland Ian
MacPherson35. Rolland Ian Macpherson - New device

Per chevron azure and lozengy argent and sable, between two horses combattant a mullet of four points elongated to base argent.

His name was registered in Jun. 2001 via the East.


36. Sabine de Kerbriant (f) - New name change
Current name: Sabine Kerbriant de Lanvaux

No major changes. Her current name was registered in May 2003, via the East. If this name change is successful, her current name is to be retained as an alternate name.

Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille by Marie-Thérčse Morlet p. 551 s.n. Ker says 'Breton, very frequent in the formation of place names which have become a number of family names.' -briant is cited as a variant of -briand. Remainder of name is grandfathered.


Sarra the Lymner37. Sarra the Lymner - New device

Argent, in cross four hedgehogs contourny purpure.

Her name was registered in Feb. 2003, via the East.


38. Scolastica la souriete (f) - New name change
Current name: Cateline de la Mor la Souriete

No major changes. If this name is registered, she wants to retain Cateline de la Mor la Souriete (registered Aug. 1990 via Trimaris) as an alternate name.

Scolastica as a given name is dated to 1195, 1207, 1221, and 1316 under the heading Scollas on page 395 of A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson.

The phrase 'la Souriete' is grandfathered from her current name. It's Old French and means 'the little mouse'. It was documented in the original submission from Frédéric Godefroy's Dictionnaire de l' ancienne langue francaise et tous ses dialectes du IX au XV sičcle, volume 7, p. 533. (Originally published in Paris 1892, reprinted in 1965 by Krause Reprint Ltd.)


39. Severio Santangelo (m) - New name

If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.

'Severio' is found in Dizionario dei nomi italiani by Emidio de Felice p. 331 s.n. 'Severo' as an undated variant; the entry mentions several saints contributing to the name's popularity, including a 5th c. San Severo, bishop of Ravenna, and a 5th c. San Severino, a monk who has some connection with Naples.

Santangelo is constructed as a locative-type surname, based on a town called S. Angelo in Puglia, found in Maridonna Benvenuti's 'Mercator's Place Names of Italy in 1554' at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/mercator/south.html. The format of the surname is based on 'Italian Men's Names in Rome, 1473-1484' by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/Studium/BynAlpha.html. This article shows, for example, da Sangimignano (one word) as well as da San Gemignano, and di Santo Ambrogio is also written Sancto Ambruose, without the preposition. The surname also appears as an undated header form in Dizionario dei cognomi italiani by Emidio de Felice, p. 223.


40. Siobhán inghean Eoghain (f) - New name change
Current name: Evelyn Macewan of Kynblathmund

Her current name was registered in Jan. 2003, via the East. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning 'Siobhan daughter or descendant of Ewen'.

Siobhán appears in Irish Names by Donnchadh ÓCorraín & Fidelma Maguire under 'Sibán', undated. Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/) has Siobhán 22 times between 1310 and 1600.

Eoghainn: The Surnames of Scotland by George F. Black under MacEwan shows 'MacEoghainn' undated, along with various dated spellings from 1219 to 1724.Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/) has Eoghan 32 times between the 900s and 1590; the c.1200-c.1700 genitive form is given as Eoghain.

Submitted as Siobhán inghean mhic Eoghainn, it conflicts with Siobhan nic Eoin (Apr. 1994 Meridies). By precedent, Gaelic inghean mhic conflicts with Scots nic, since they both express the same relationship: "daughter of the son (or descendant) of" (09/01 Cover Letter). Also by precedent, Eoghan is in auditory conflict with Eoin; although they're actually two different names, their pronunciations are insufficiently different to clear a conflict (Eoghan mac Cinatha, 03/02 R-Ansteorra). Since the submission form indicated that she would like to be either a descendant or daughter of Ewen, the byname has been changed to a straight patronymic to clear this conflict. Per the aforementioned Cover Letter, bynames that express a different relationship do not conflict, and inghean Eoghain is at least one generation removed from nic Eoin.


Svína-Kormákr Ívarsson41. Svína-Kormákr Ívarsson - New device

Azure, a boar passant to sinister between three triquetras argent.

His name was registered in May 2005 via the East. There is a letter of permission to conflict included from Echrad ingen Óengusa, who bears Azure, a horse courant contourny between three triquetras argent (March 2005 East). (The letter of permission to conflict is unnecessary: boars and horses are substantially different charges, so this device is clear of Echrad's by RfS X.2.)


Thomas delbruc42. Thomas delbroc (m) - New name & new device

Sable, a cup Or and a base ermine.

No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning 'of the brook'. Submitter will accept minor changes to his surname, so long as 'Thomas' remains intact. He prefers the spelling 'delbruc', but will accept 'delbroc'.

Thomas is from Julian Goodwyn's "Brass Enscription Index" ( http://sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses ), dated to 1347.

A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson p. 67 s.n. Brook gives Eustace delbroc (1130), William de la Broke (1208), William del Brokes (1332). A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames by Charles Wareing Bardsley p. 138 s.n. Brook gives Edelina del Brok (Hen. III - Edw. I), Robertus del Brok' (Hen. III - Edw. I), Lavrence del Broc (1273), Richard atte Brook (1419).

Submitted as Thomas delbruc; commenters could find no evidence that the word "brook" was ever spelled with just a 'u' in English, so his byname has been changed to the documented delbroc.

This device should be clear of Uther vom Schwartzwald (Apr. 1999 Outlands): Sable, a winged chalice Or. There's a CD for the base, and the wings should add another, unless they're very small. This requires a visual call.


43. Tuathflaith inghean uí Cleirigh (f) - New name

No major changes. She requests authenticity for Irish language/culture. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Irish language and/or culture.

Tuathflaith is from "Dated Names Found in ÓCorraín and Maguire's Irish Names" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/ocm/), no date cited. Tuathflaith is dated as the name of "a queen of Leinster who died in 754" in OCM p. 173 s.n. Tuathflaith. The name is dated to 749 in Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/).

Cleirigh is from Irish Families: Their Names and Origins by Edward MacLysaght (Dublin: Allen Figgis, 1972) pp. 80-81, no date cited (and no photocopy provided; the MacLysaght on the no-photocopy list is a different book). It is also in Irish Names and Surnames by Patrick Woulfe p. 467, again, no date cited. The CELT archive ( http://www.ucc.ie/celt/search.html) has 11 hits for Cleirigh, six of them from the Annals of Ulster and dated between 891 and 1195, and five from the Four Masters, dated between 948 and 1583.

The patronymic was corrected from úi to .


Velasco Calderon44. Velasco Calderon (m) - New name & new device

Argent, a serpent sable, head to dexter chief, entwined around a key palewise wards to chief gules.

If his name must be changed, he cares most about sound.

Juliana de Luna's "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella/index.html ) under Men's Given Names shows 'Velasco' as occurring once. Ibid under Other Surnames shows 'Calderon'.


Viviene la
Chandeliere45. Viviene la chandeliere (f) - New name & new device

Purpure, a wolf rampant and in chief three fleurs-de-lys Or.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about French language/culture, specifically Paris ca. 1225-1375. If registerable, she would prefer to keep the submitted spellings.

Academy of S. Gabriel report 1031 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/1031 ) mentions Viviene as an Old French feminine form of Vivian, citing Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France by Albert Dauzat, Les Noms de Personne Sur Le Territoire de L'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Sičcle, Volumes I & II by Marie-Thérčse Morlet, and The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names by E. G. Withycombe. The 1292 Paris census ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ) has one Vivien le serjant; Viviene or Vivienne is the expected feminine form.

'la Chandeliere' appears 10 times in Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Occupational By-Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html ), as a feminine byname meaning 'tallow candle maker'.

Per recent precedent, the capitalization of her byname has been changed to lowercase (Baudoin le pevrier, 09/05 A-Meridies)


This makes, by my count, 23 new names, 25 new devices, 2 new badges, 2 new group names, 1 new guild name, 4 new name changes, 1 new device change, and 1 new appeal of a kingdom return of a household name; for a grand total of 59 new actions. There are also 1 resubmitted name, 1 resubmitted device, and 1 resubmitted household name. This makes 3 resubmissions and a grand total of 62 actions.

We note that we sent an extra $4 to Laurel last month: item #22, the device for Marcus Blackaert, should have been listed as a resubmission. This means we only need pay for 58 actions. A check for $232 will be sent under a separate cover.


Bibliography

Bahlow, Hans; Dictionary of German Names, translated by Edda Gentry; University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 1993.

Bain, Robert; The Clans and Tartans of Scotland; FIXME.

Bardsley, Charles Wareing; A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames; Heraldry Today, Wiltshire, England, 1988.

Black, George F; The Surnames of Scotland; New York Public Library, New York, 1946.

Bubak, Józef; Ksi{e,}ga naszych imion; Wroc{l/}aw, Warzawa, Kraków: Zak{l/}ad Narodowoy im. Ossoli{n/}skich Wydawnictwo, 1993.

Bruce Draconarius of Mistholm and Akagawa Yoshio; A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry, 2nd ed.; 1992.

Colm Dubh; "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html).

Colm Dubh; "An Index to the Occupational By-Names in the 1292 Census of Paris"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html).

Dauzat, Albert; Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France; Larousse, Paris, 1987.

Dauzat, Albert & Charles Rostaing; Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France; Paris, 1963.

de Felice, Emidio; Dizionario dei cognomi italiani; Arnoldo Mondadori, Milan, 1978.

de Felice, Emidio; Dizionario dei nomi italiani; Arnoldo Mondadori, Milan, 1986.

Ekwall, Eilert; The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, Fourth Edition; Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.

Geirr Bassi Haraldsson; The Old Norse Name; Professor G. Fleck, Olney, Maryland, 1977.

Hitching, F.K. & S.; References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602; Geneological Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, 1999.

Grimble, Ian; Scottish Clans and Tartans; New York : Tudor Pub. Co., 1973.

Johnston, James B.; Place-Names of Scotland; John Murray, London, 1934.

Julian Goodwyn; "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/).

Juliana de Luna; "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella/index.html).

Karen Larsdatter; "An Index to the 1296 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Rutland, England"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Rutland/index.htm).

Mills, A.D.; A Dictionary of English Place-Names; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991.

Morlet, Marie-Thérčse; Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille.

Morlet, Marie-Thérčse; Les Noms de Personne Sur Le Territoire de L'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Sičcle, Volumes I & II; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1967, 1968.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Kees; "Names in the Low Lands before 1150" ( http://www.keesn.nl/names/index.html).

ÓCorraín, Donnchadh & Fidelma Maguire; Irish Names; The Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.

Paul Wickenden of Thanet. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, 3rd edition; SCA, Inc., 2000.

Popoff, Michel; Armorial du Dénombrement de la Comté de Clermont en Beauvaisis; FIXME.

Reaney, P.H. & R.M. Wilson; A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition; Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York, 1991.

Searle, William George; Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum; Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim, 1969.

Smith, A.H. English Place-Name Elements (Volumes I & II); Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956.

Socin, Adolf; Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch; Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, Hildesheim, 1966.

Talan Gwynek; "A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/scottishfem.html).

Talan Gwynek; "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html).

Talan Gwynek; "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm).

Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn; "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jonesmanx16.html).

Tengvik; Old English Bynames; Uppsala, 1938.

Walraven van Nijmegen; "Hungarian Feminine Names"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/magfem2.html).

Watts, Victor; The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names; Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Withycombe, E.G.; The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, multiple editions.

Woulfe, Patrick; Irish Names and Surnames; Irish Genealogical Foundation, Kansas City, Missourri.