22 November 2006
Unto Elisabeth Laurel, Jeanne Marie Wreath, Margaret Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Blue Tyger Herald!
It is the intent of Easterners to register the following items. Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity and allows any changes.
1 Adhemar von Kempten (m) - New Name & New Device
Quarterly sable and argent, four griffins segreant counterchanged.
Adhemar is found in Juliana de Luna's "Occitan Townspeople in the 14th Century" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/occitan/occitan.html).
Bahlow's Deutsches Namenlexicon under Kempt(er) dates Conr. Kempter to 1337, meaning 'from Kempten'. A period map of the city of Kempten, Germany can be found in Braun and Hogenberg: Civitates Orbis Terrarum II (first Latin edition of volume II published 1575), available at http://historic-cities.huji.ac.il/germany/kempten/maps/braun_hogenberg_II_38.html. The map has the town's name as "Campidonia, vulgo Kemptten"; combined with the Kempter (single 't')cite from Bahlow, this should be enough to support the submitted form of the byname.
French and German combinations have been ruled to be a step from period practice, but registerable (Gabrielle von Friedrichsthal, 04/04 A-Calontir); commenters believe the same principle probably applies when combining Occitan and German.
2 Alfonso Pontelli (m) - New Name & New Device
Per bend sinister azure and argent, a bend Or between a unicorn rampant contourny and an oriental dragon contourny counterchanged.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.
Alfonso is found in the "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532, Given Names" ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/name1.html), with 42 occurrences.
Pontelli is found (undated) under Ponte in De Felice's Dizionario dei cognomi italiani. Commenters were unable to find a dated citation for Pontelli, but Aryanhwy's "Italian Names from Imola, 1312" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/imola.html) has one instance of de Ponte (in a Latin context).
3 Ana Ximenez de Hume (f) - New Name & New Device
Or semy of roundels purpure, a wolf contourny gules.
No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the sound.
Ana occurs 20 times in Juliana de Luna's "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella).
Ximenez is dated to 1237 on p. 157 of Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses. Hume is dated to 1451 in Black's Surnames of Scotland p. 363 s.n. Home. The linguistic mix of Spanish and (presumably) Scots was of some concern at kingdom, given that Spanish/Welsh and Spanish/Anglicized Irish combinations have been disallowed. However, Hume can also be found as a locative byname in English: Bardsley pp. 407-408 s.n. Hume has de la Hume 1273 and Hulme 1610, and R&W adds Hume 1275 (p. 243 s.n. Hume), de Home 1275, del Home1222, atte Home 1327, and Home 1524 (p. 237 s.n. Home). English/Spanish combinations have been ruled a step from period practice, but registerable (Isabella Maria-Magdalena Fernandes de Chaves, 05/04 R-Trimaris).
Her name is constructed based on her parents' registered names: Isabel Jimenez de Gaucin, reg. Apr. 98 via the Middle, and Jayme Hume of Berwick, reg. Oct. 98 via the Middle.
4 Anna Tarr (f) - New Name & New Device
Argent, a turtle tergiant fesswise vert between two bars wavy azure between three gouttes sable.
Anna is found in R&W p. 400 s.n. Semple, dated 1515, and p. 430 s.n. Strangeway, dated 1507.
Tarr is dated 1593/4 in "Names in Chesham, 1538-1600/1" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/chesham/). This should be clear of Anna Tanner, reg. Mar 93 via the Middle.
There is precedent disallowing ordinaries that are "wavy bretessed" (Catherine the Merry, 12/91 R-Trimaris; quoted many times thereafter, including Andrew Quintero, 09/99 R-Atenveldt). Although this is two bars wavy, rather than a single wavy ordinary, so that this precedent shouldn't technically apply, the narrowness of the bars means that this could easily be interpreted as "a fess wavy bretessed argent fimbriated azure", in which case the precedent would be a problem. Also, a commenter cited a possible conflict with Luke of Iron Bog (Oct. 98 via the East): Argent, a goutte de poix between two bars wavy azure. If the turtle and gouttes form a single charge group, this has a single CD for number of charges (and nothing for changing the type and tincture of just one out of four charges). Commentary was mixed on these issues, so we decided to give it the benefit of wider CoA commentary.
5 Armand de Crecy - New Device Change
Or, 'Je me souviens' between two scarpes engrailed on the outer edge between two fleurs-de-lys within a bordure engrailed sable.
His name was registered in Oct. 1985 via the East. His current device, registered Mar. 1986 via the East, Or, two scarpes engrailed between two fleurs-de-lys, all within a bordure sable, is to be converted to a badge upon registration of this submission. Je me souviens means 'I remember'.
Commenters had some concerns regarding presumption, conflict, and trademark issues: "Je me souviens" is the motto of the Province of Quebec, and it is used frequently in tourist promotions and public monuments.
6 Buyan Delger (m) - New Name & New Device
Or, a Chinese dragon in annulo contourny sable surrounding a sun gules.
If his name must be changed, he cares most about Mongol language or culture.
Documentation and Construction of Period Mongolian Names by Baras-aghur Naran ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/mongol.html) lists Delger 'abundance' under Common Name Elements from Other Sources. It also says that one model of name construction is "names made of two identifiable words." While Buyan 'merit, virtue' isn't found in the article, it seems to fit the pattern of listed name parts, such as words meaning 'wisdom', 'good luck', 'dignity or holiness', and 'long life'. The submitter also provides an email from Ellen McGill at Harvard, stating that Buyandelger is a standard Mongolian name; and copies from Ferdinand Lessing, Mongolian-English Dictionary, showing bujan 'moral, merit, virtue' p.132 and delger 'extensive, vast' p.249.
This arrangement of charges is similar to "an X within a laurel wreath" commonly found in the arms of Society branches. In these arrangements, the X is usually interpreted as the primary charge, with the laurel wreath a secondary charge, despite its (necessarily) larger size. If this interpretation is applied here, then this device conflicts with both Elizabeth Amy Godwin (July 1990 via Caid), Or, a compass star gules and a gore sinister sable, and Etienne d'Argent (Aug. 1985 via the West), Or, a mullet of twelve points pierced gules, a chief triangular sable: in each case, there is a single CD for the change in type of secondary charge. However, it is apparent from the submitted blazon that this was meant to be a primary dragon surrounding a secondary sun, and given their relative sizes, Eastern Crown is reluctant to see the dragon as anything less than co-primary with the sun. In this interpretation, the cited conflicts do not apply.
7 Christine McDavid (f) - New Name & New Device
Sable, on a chevron argent three trefoils vert, in base a heart argent.
Withycombe dates 'Cristina' to 1273 and 1346, s.n. Christina. 'Christine' is listed as an alternative header form. Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html) dates Cristine to 1277-78, 1305, and 1312, and Christina to 1283, 1297, 1311, 1335, and 1367. "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" by Sharon L. Krossa ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/index.shtml) dates Christian 1543, Cristane 1540, Cristen 1534, 1548, Cristene 1543, 1548, 1549, Crystane 1540, and Kristene 1532. Given these spelling variations, the submitted Christine seems plausible.
Black p. 485 s.n. MacDavid dates the header spelling to 1562. The originally submitted McDevitt, is a post-period Anglicized form; the surname has therefore been changed to the more plausibly period McDavid. McDevitt is an Anglicization of 'mac Dáibhidh' or 'mac Daibhéid'. Woulfe (p. 348 s.nn. Mac Dhaibhéid, Mac Dáibhidh) gives M'Daveyd and M'David as period forms (dated to temp. Eliz. I - James I), with McDevitt and McDavitt coming later.
The device is clear of Johanna Ljubljana (Jan. 1993 via the West), Sable, on a chevron throughout argent three mullets of four points vert, in base a plate: there is one CD for change in type of secondary charge, and another for change in type of tertiary charges (by X.4.j.ii.). The trefoils are in their standard orientation, so the phrase "to base" has been dropped from the blazon.
8 Diarmait Ó Meachair (m) - New Name & New Device
Per fess azure and vert, a cat passant between three triangles Or.
If his name must be changed, he cares most about sound; the specifics line says "O Meachair sounds like 'O-marr'."
Diarmait is an Irish masculine name found in OCM, very popular in medieval Ireland 6th century on. Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Diarmait.shtml) has Diarmait as the Old or Middle Irish (pre-1200) spelling of a name spelled Diarmaid in the Early Modern Irish (post-1200) period. It appears 30 times in the annals, with dates ranging from 615 to 1585, with no big gaps along the way. It is also found (in its earlier spelling, naturally) in Tangwystyl's "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/irish100.html).
Ó Meachair is the header form in Woulfe. Two English variants (O'Magher and O'Maher) are dated to pre-1600. Ceneoil Meachair occurs as a placename in the Annals of the Four Masters, with a date of 1012 (M1012.8: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005B/index.html). This of course doesn't mean that this spelling is appropriate to this date. We don't know what the correct pre-1200 form of this name is. Mixing pre- and post-1200 Gaelic orthographies is considered a step from period practice, but registerable (Tigernach Ó Catháin, 11/01 A-Caid), so no changes were made at kingdom.
9 Dugan Makgowin of Aydel (m) - New Name & New Device
Per pale vert and argent, a chief counterchanged.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about an unspecified language and/or culture. The authenticity request line says "Dugan Macgowan of Edzell", but none of the boxes are checked, and the Pennsic worksheet makes no mention of an authenticity request.
Dugan is dated to 1413 as a surname in Black (s.n. Dugan), derived from Dubhagán. OCM say it is a southern Irish given name.Woulfe p. 508 s.n. O Duacháin has the Elizabethan/Jacobean Anglicized spelling O Doughane, and s.n. O Dubhagáin there's O Doogaine and O Dowgaine, along with the modern forms Dugan and Duggan. Tangwystyl's "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century" ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/manxnames/jonesmanx16.shtml) has an instance of MacDugan, and OCM gives Duggan as the English form of Dubacán, so Dugan seems plausible as a Scots form of this Gaelic given name.
McGowan is a header in Black; it is dated as Makgowin to 1526, and McGown in 1592. There is also a discussion of a clan M'Gowan in the reign of David II.
Aydel is dated to 1250 in Johnston s.n. Edzell.
Kingdom commenters unanimously approved of this device; adjectives used included "nice" and "righteous." It should be clear of both Malta (Dec. 1994 via Laurel), Per pale argent and gules and Ædric the Grene (Jan. 1998 via Atlantia), Per pale sable and vert. In each case, there is one CD for changes to the field tincture and another for adding the chief.
10 Dugan Makgowin
of Aydel - New Badge
Gules, a chevron abased and in chief a boar passant contourny argent.
Name submitted above.
11 Dúnchad Bjarnarson (m) - New Name
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound of the given name.
Dúnchad is from OCM p. 80 s.n. Dúnchad, which dates this spelling to 973 in Ireland. Dunchad (without the diacritic) also appears in Tangwystyl's "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/irish100.html).
Bjarnarson is from Geirr Bassi p. 8 s.n. Bjorn, which cites this name 42 times. The proper patronymic construction per p. 18 is Bjarnarson.
Combinations of Old Norse and Gaelic are a step from period practice, but registerable (Cera ingen Leoid, 03/00 A-Meridies).
12 Éadaoin inghean Eoghain (f) - New Name & New Device
Azure, a phoenix Or and a chief ermine.
No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Scottish/Irish language/culture.
Éadaoin is from OCM p. 90 s.n. Étaín, which says "Étain is the heroine of a fine Old Irish tale." Also Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's Index of Names in Irish Annals ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Etain.shtml) dates this name between 1104 and 1476. Also s.n. Étaín is the presumably non-fictional Étain daughter of Fínghin Mór Mac Carthaigh, from the 13th century.
inghean' is Gaelic for 'daughter of'.
Eoghain is from OCM p. 87 s.n. Eógan, which says "Eógan is one of the twenty most popular names in early Ireland." Use of the post-1200 spelling for the patronymic is supported by Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Eogan.shtml), which has multiple 15th and 16th century examples of Eoghan.
13 Eibhlín inghean uí Choileáin - New Device Change
Purpure, on a pale bretessed between two dogs combattant, each maintaining a shamrock argent, a book gules.
Her name was registered in August 2002 via the East. Her previous device, "Argent, two arrows in saltire surmounted by a needle gules, flaunches purpure" was registered in February 2005 via the East, and is to be released if this device is registered.
14 Eiríkr á Vestrgautlandi (m) - New Name & New Device
Gules, a rooster close Or between two pallets azure fimbriated argent all between three bezants.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about Old Norse language/culture.
Geirr Bassi, p. 9, under Masculine Names says Eiríkr occurs 12 times.
á is either 'in' or 'of', which is generalized from a list in Lindorm Eriksson The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/runicbynames/), the 'Names of Places' table.Vestrgautlandi is taken from Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic p.161 s.n. Gautland, where it says this is the name of the "land of the Gautar", i.e., it's the old form of Gotland. Ibid p. 486 has compounds in vest- and vestr-, e.g. Vestr-lönd, 'the British Isles, the Occident'. '-i' as a genitive ending is generalized from Lindorm Eriksson, op.cit.
According to RfS VIII.3., "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design." Technically, the pallets here are not in the center of the design: the rooster is. This strict application of the rule may be counter to its original intent, however. RfS VIII.3. is titled "Armorial Identifiability," and the fimbriation here doesn't interfere with the identification of any part of the design. (An alternate interpretation: pales are, by definition, central ordinaries; by extension, then, these diminutive pales are also central, and the fact that there's a more-central rooster between them is incidental.)
15 Eric the Horseman (m) - New Name & New Device
Barry vert and argent, a horse's head couped Or and a bordure sable.
No major changes.
Eric is from 1016, Earl of North, taken from Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, by Searle, William George, 1897 pub., p. 234.
Horseman is after Agnes le Horseman (1273), from A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, Bardsley, Charles Wareing, 1996 ed., p. 399.
A mixture of Old and Middle English is considered one step from period practice, but registerable (Saxsa Corduan, 10/01 A-Meridies).
16 Franz von Heilbronn - New Device
Sable, a polar bear argent and a lynx combattant between three annulets engrailed of eight points Or.
His name was registered in November 2003 via the East. His previous device submission, Sable, a mountain cat's head couped and in chief an annulet indented counter-indented between two garbs Or, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Alphia Biraz-pars (May 1986 Middle), Sable, a natural leopard's head couped Or marked sable. This is a rather thorough redesign.
17 Geneviève Bertholet (f) - New Name & New Device
Per pale purpure and vert, a compass star and a chief engrailed argent.
No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the spelling.
Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html) lists a Geneviève la Flamenge. It also appears in Dauzat Noms de famille et prénoms on p. 286.
Dauzat p. 40 has Bertholet, undated. Flutre p.29 s.n. Bertolet has the variant Bertholet.
18 Ghislaine Isabella de Lessines (f) - New Name & New Device
Argent, on a bend between two mullets purpure, a fleur-de-lys palewise Or.
Ghislaine is from Dauzat Noms de famille et prenoms p. 294 s.n. Gisele. The listed forms are without the final 'e', which the submitter believes is the masculine form. She wishes to have the feminine form with the final 'e'.
Isabella is from Withycombe, p. 164, as as header. This is the Spanish form of Elizabeth. Since the Spanish controlled Belgium in the 14th C, the submitter wishes this form over the French Isabelle or Isabeau.
Lessines is a village in Belgium between Brussels and the border of France. A major hospital was commissioned there in the 13th C. http://www.lessines.be/tourisme/Hopital_nd.htm, which says "Founded in 1242, the Hospital of Our Lady with the Rose is one of the last examples of a completely self-sufficient hospital site, which shows us the way a medieval hospital functioned." Also http://www.notredamealarose.com/start.php?lang=UK says " Alix de Rosoit and Arnould IV of Oudenaarde are eminent persons in the 13th century and they leave significant traces in the region: in Lessines, the hospital and the circle of ramparts..."
19 Gideon ha-Khazar - New Device
Argent, on a bend between two menorahs azure a bottlenosed dolphin naiant argent.
His name was registered in April 2002 via the East.
20 Guy Lourance (m) - New Name & New Device
Per pale azure and gules, a winged domestic cat sejant affronty wings displayed and inverted between three quill pens palewise argent.
If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.
Withycombe s.n. Guy says "...The French forms of the name were Guy and Guyon... It was in common use from the Norman Conquest until the 17th Century, when Guy Fawkes drove it out of use for some 200 years." It is also the submitter's mundane given name. ardsley p. 344 s.n. Guy lists a Guy de Bois, with an 'H' afterward (which apparently indicates the Rolls of Parliament), but no date. He also dates it as a surname to 1597.
R&W under Laurence has William Lourance, Lucus Lowrance 1374, 1481.
21 Irene Lenoir - New Badge
(Fieldless) An olive branch bendwise sinister fructed vert.
Her name was registered in April 1990 via the East.
This is probably a visual call against Ioseph the Chameleon (Feb. 1985 via Meridies), Argent, a three-horned chameleon statant to sinister vert on a branch bendwise sinister throughout proper: there's a CD for fieldlessness, but it's unclear from this blazon whether there's another CD for the chameleon or not. Blue Tyger has checked the image, and the chameleon is definitely at least co-primary, if not the primary charge by itself, and thus this is clear. It should be clear of Armando Ramos el Caido (Jul. 1996 via Atenveldt), (Fieldless) A branch blasted bendwise sinister proper: even if the lack of leaves isn't counted, there should be a CD for tincture and another from the fieldless bribe.
22 Isabel de Roys (f) - New Name & New Device
Per bend purpure and vert, on a bend argent three thistles vert blossomed purpure.
No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Scottish Gaelic language/culture. She requests authenticity for 14th century Scottish Gaelic.
Isabel is dated to 1296 in Talan Gwynek's A List of Feminine Personal Names Found in Scottish Records ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/scottishfem/). The article actually dates Isabel to ca. 1350, and Isabele to 1296.
Black's Surnames of Scotland p. 380 also has Isabelson.
Black (op. cit.) dates 'Muriel de Roys' to 1333 on p. 699 s.n. Rose.
This is an excellent 14th c. Scots name, but no part of it is Scottish Gaelic. Since she doesn't allow major changes, the name cannot be made authentic: changing an element's language is a major change.
23 Joachim Liehtenauwer (m) - New Name & New Device
Per saltire sable and gules, four Maltese crosses within a bordure argent.
He will not allow the creation of a holding name.
Joachim is dated to 1346 under that header in Withycombe p. 176. Bahlow Unsere Vornamen also lists Joachim p. 55, but gives no dates. The spelling Joachim is dated to 1508 in Aryanhwy's "Low German Names from Hamburg, 1475-1529" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/hamburg.html). Other spellings in this article are Jachym 1493, Jochim 1492, 1525, and Jochymme 1480, 1481. Also, Brechenmacher vol. 1 p. 775 s.n. Joachim has Jac. dictus J. 1359; as far as we can tell, the 'J.' stands for the header spelling, i.e. this person was "called Joachim."
Brechenmacher p. 183 s.n. Licht(e)nau(er) dates 'Joh. dictus Liehtenauwer' to 1337.
24 John Lyttleton - New Badge
(Fieldless) A horse's head couped argent charged with a musical note vert.
His name was registered in February 1992 via the East.
His previous badge submission, (Fieldless) A horse's head couped argent, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Joseph Angus of Wilson (Sep 2001 Calontir), Per chevron lozengy sable and argent and sable, a chess knight argent. This submission adds a tertiary charge to clear that conflict.
The following precedent is relevant:
This badge is clear of Reginleif the Unruly (Nov. 1987 via An Tir), Sable, on a horse's head couped argent, a flame sable, with one CD for the field and one for changing the type and tincture of the tertiary charge.
25 Joscelin Tarr - New Device
Argent, between two bars wavy azure an anchor and in chief a goutte sable.
Her name was registered in August 2006, via the East.
Her previous device submission, Argent, an anchor and in chief a goutte sable between a chief barry wavy argent and azure and a ford, was returned at kingdom for lack of identifiability of the goutte. This redesign fixes that problem by moving the goutte and making it bigger.
26 Leifr rella (m) - New Name & New Device
Per pale invected sable and azure, two sinister footprints and a beaver rampant argent.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about Viking-Danelaw culture and the meaning 'Leifr the grumbler'.
Leifr is a masculine given name on p.13 of Geirr Bassi.
'rella' is a nickname glossed as 'grumble, gripe' on p. 26 of Geirr Bassi.
The use of footprints as a heraldic charge is considered a step from period practice, but registerable (Constance Wilkicke, 12/05 A-Calontir).
27 Letta Donati (f) - New Name & New Device
Per fess azure and argent, three bells counterchanged.
Letta is from Rhian Lyth's, Italian Personal Names (KWHS Proceedings 1990), which dates this to 1383. The name is also found in the Catasto of 1427.
Donati is taken from Ferrante la Volpe's article, "Italian Names from Florance, 1427" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto/), which lists 18 occurrences of this family name (an archaic? genitive of 'Donato'). In Italian, 'Donati' is the nominative plural of 'Donato'; this method of forming a family name using a plural is quite common. (Coincidentally, 'Donati' is also the standard Latin genitive form of 'Donatus'.) The full article, Family Names Appearing in the Catasto of 1427, can be found at http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/family_names.html.
28 Lorccán hua Donnubáin - New Device
Or billety azure, a wolf's head cabossed per pale vert and sable.
His name was registered in August 2006, via the East.
His previous device submission, Or, a fox's mask per pale vert and sable, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Emily of Swordcliff (Aug 2004 Midrealm), (Fieldless) A wolf's head cabossed per pale vert and sable. This submission adds the strewn charges to clear that conflict.
29 Magdalena d'Arzenta - New Device
Gules, a decrescent, an increscent, and a spider argent.
Her name was registered in August 2006, via the East.Her previous device submission, Gules, three spiders argent, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Sabina le Sewester (Aug 2003 West), Party of six gules and argent, three spiders inverted argent. This submission changes two of the three primary charges to clear that conflict. This device is clear of both Sara Boone (Oct. 2003 via Atenveldt), Gules, an increscent a decrescent and an owl argent and Gro Torstensdotter (Jun. 2004 via Drachenwald), Gules, three crescents argent. In each case, there is one CD for changing the type of half of the primary charge group (since the bottom charge of a two-and-one arrangement counts as half of the group), and another CD for changing the arrangement or orientation of the other half of the group.
30 Magdalena von Regensburg - New Device
Quarterly vert and argent, two hinds trippant argent.
Her name was forwarded to Laurel on the East's August 2006 Letter of Intent.
31 Marcellus Corionus (m) - New Name & New Device
Gules, on a bend between two lightning bolts bendwise Or three garbs gules.
His previous name submission, Marcus Marcellus Corionus, was returned at kingdom because 'Marcellus' could not be documented as a nomen. His previous device submission, Gules, a bend between two lightning bolts bendwise sinister Or, was also returned at that time, for conflict with Gabriella di Ravenna (Oct 95 West), Gules, a bend between two decrescents Or. This submission adds tertiaries to clear that conflict. The submitter makes no request for authenticity, but the Pennsic worksheet notes in big letters that he desires a Romano-British name. The submitter will accept 'Marcellus of Corinium' if necessary for registration.
Marcellus is a personal name dated to 506-614 on p.74 of Morlet's Les noms de personne sur le territoire de l'ancienne Gaule du VI.e au XII.e siecle.
Corionus is a proposed locative cognomen based on Corinium, found in "The Place-names of Roman Britain" by Rivet & Smith s.n. Corinium Dubunnorum. No photocopies were provided of this source. There is, however, a page printed from Wikipedia, asserting that Corinium Dobunnorum was founded as a Roman fort ca. 49 AD; and multiple pages from an article "Cirencester - Corinium Dobunnorum" by Alan McWhirr, http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/cbaresrep/pdf/693/09306001.pdf, which appears to address the archeology of the modern British town. The consulting herald believes 'Corionus' is the correct form of locative.
32 Nazarius Orlandi (m) - New Name & New Device
Per bend gules and vert, a dragonfly and a hammer argent.
He allows no changes to the given name; changes are allowed to make the patronymic correct.
Both names are found in Masculine Names from Thirteenth Century Pisa by Juliana de Luna, in the 'Men's Names in Alphabetical Order' section ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/pisa/pisa.html ). Nazarius appears three times, while Orlandus appears 23 times.'Orlandi' is the Latin genitive (possessive) form of 'Orlandus', and putting the father's name in the genitive case is indeed one of the ways of writing a patronymic in Latin. (The other way is to indicate the exact nature of the relationship by adding the word filius 'son' or filia 'daughter' along with the father's name in the genitive case.) The names in Juliana's cited article are all Latinized, so a Latin patronymic is the correct thing to use.
33 Nello da Venezia (m) - New Name & New Device
Per pale sable and gules, a raven displayed argent and in chief two open books Or.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.
Nello is De Felice Cognomi p. 177 s.n. Nelli, which suggests Nello was in use in medieval times. Also found in Ferrante la Volpe's Italian Names from Florance, 1427 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ferrante/catasto).Ferrante's cited article has seven instances of Nello as a given name, and two as a patronymic.
da Venezia 'of Venice' is from Arval Benicoeur's Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/), which shows 'da' as proper in locatives. DeFelice p. 259 gives Venezia as the Italian spelling of Venice.The "Online Tratte of Office Holders" has one instance of Venezia as a place of origin ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/ORIGIN.html).
The use of any bird other than an eagle in the displayed posture is considered one step from period practice, but registerable (01/00 and 11/03 Cover Letter).
34 Njal Virtanen -
New Device Change
Per saltire sable and argent, two Thor's hammers inverted and two spears counterchanged.
His current name and device (Per saltire sable and argent, four hammers counterchanged) were registered in October 1994 via the East. Upon registration of this device, his old device is to be retained as a badge.
Snorradóttir (f) - New Name Change & New Device
Argent, a stag lodged gules and a bordure gules bezanty.
No major changes. Her current name and device (Per pale nebuly argent and vert, six martlets contourny two two and two counterchanged) were registered in March 2002 via Æthelmearc. Both are to be released upon registration of this submission. If her name must be changed, she cares most about Old Norse language/culture.
Ragnveig is from Nordiskt runnamslexikon ( http://www.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472), woman's name from runestone N213 transcribed as 'ranuauk' and identified as Ragnvæig/Rannvæig. Submitted form also found on p. 844 of Lind.
Snorradóttir is a patronymic. The root name, Snorri, is on p. 14 of Geirr Bassi. The patronymic is formed according to rules outlined on p. 17.
This device is clear of Tarlach o' the Wode (Sep. 2000 via the West), Argent, a stag lodged guardant and a chief gules, with one CD for the type of peripheral charge and another for adding the tertiary bezants.
Rhiannon of Carreg Cennen (f) - New Change of Holding Name &
(Fieldless) A unicorn's horn Or.
No major changes. The name as submitted at, kingdom (see below) was returned on the October 1992 LoAR because 'de Licorne' was deemed ungrammatical unless 'Licorne' could be documented as a place name, and because there is precedent against combining 'Rhiannon' with other allusions to horses or unicorns. Her device, Gules, a unicorn's horn throughout between two dolphins urinant respectant Or was registered under the holding name Bev of Settmour Swamp (Oct 92 A-East). If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning (French for 'unicorn'). She will allow dropping 'de Licorne' if necessary for registration.
Rhiannon is SCA compatible. (Rhiannon Ross, 10/05 A-Calontir).
Carreg Cennen is a Welsh castle dating at least to the 13th century (possibly much earlier), and demolished in 1462 after the Wars of the Roses, according to http://www.castlewales.com/carreg.html. "Wales at the Time of the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267" by John Garnons Williams ( http://www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html) discusses the author's project of constructing a map of 13th century Wales. Under "Names Appearing on the Map", the subheading says: "The format of this list is as follows: [a] modern name [in English and Welsh]; [b] modern county; [c] place-name on the map [where possible in English and Welsh]; [d] date of the record used [e] earliest record of the name [f] earliest record of the Welsh name [g] meaning of the name [h] Welsh meaning of the name (if different from [g])." The entry of interest reads: "CARREG CENNEN (Dyf) Carreg Cennen (see footnote). Meaning: from WELSH carreg 'rock' and, probably, cynnen. There was a castle here long before the present one of c. 1300." The referenced footnote reads:
Submitted as Rhiannon de Licorne of Carreg Cennen, commenters could once again find no justification for de Licorne. In German or English, "of [animal]" might be plausible as a byname based on a house- or inn-name, but French doesn't appear to use this type of construction. The cited examples of French animal names may support de la licorne (or better yet la licorne), but not de Licorne. Also, the combination of Welsh and French plus the SCA-compatible given name (Rhiannon Ross, 10/05 A-Calontir) may be too many steps from period practice. There has not been a ruling specifically on Welsh/French mixes, but Anglicized Irish/French and Gaelic/French are both "weirdnesses" (Jenievre McDermot, 06/06 A-East and Maura MacPharlain, 02/00 R-Atlantia). Kingdom has therefore dropped this problematic element from her name.
There's still the matter of long-standing precedent banning the combination of Rhiannon with references to horses or unicorns. The notion that such combinations are overly evocative of the Welsh horse goddess was affirmed for example in Nov. 1993 (Rhiannon Wild Heart, R-Outlands). However, several Rhiannon plus horse/unicorn combinations have been registered in recent years, without comment: Rhiannon of Berra (Apr. 1999 via Atlantia), Azure, a bend sinister between a unicorn couchant reguardant contourny and another couchant reguardant argent; Myfanwy ferch Rhiannon (Nov. 2001 via Æthelmearc), Purpure, three unicorns couchant in pale argent and (Fieldless) A unicorn couchant vairy pean and Or; Rhiannon of Crystal Mynes (Jan. 2003 via Calontir), Argent, on a bend sinister vert between two horse's heads couped contourny gules an arrow inverted Or and (Fieldless) A bow bendwise string to chief Or overall a horse's head couped vert; and Rhiannon of Berra (May 2002 via Atlantia), (Fieldless) A unicorn couchant contourny per pale azure and argent. I'm therefore forwarding this badge with this name and asking for clarification of the current thinking on such combinations.
This badge is clear of Gwendolyn Fitzalan (Apr. 1995 via An Tir), (Fieldless) A unicorn's horn erased palewise argent, with one CD for fieldlessness and one for the tincture of the horn. It is also clear of Emelye Rede (Aug. 2002 via Calontir), Azure, a unicorn horn issuant from base and a bordure Or and Brandwyn Alston of the Rift (Jan. 1993 via Atlantia), Azure, a unicorn's horn Or between flaunches nebuly argent; in each case, there's one CD for the field and another for the peripherals.
37 Sabina Makcaill (f) - New Name & New Device
Per chevron argent and purpure, a fleur-de-lys argent and in chief three keys reversed sable.
No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the sound 'MacKyle'. She will accept all changes to get the sound as close to MacKyle as possible.
Withycombe dates Sabina under that header to 1199-1215 and 1303.
Black Surnames of Scotland s.n. Mackail dates a 'Findlay Makcaill' to 1506.
38 Samuel Lewis of Fenton (m) - New Name & New Device
Per fess azure and vert, three arrows inverted Or.
He requests authenticity for 16th century England, but asks that 'of Fenton' not be dropped (the spelling may change).
Withycombe p. 263 s.n. Samuel says that the name occurs as early as 1273. RW p.278 s.n. Lewis dates the name to 1413.
Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames p. 178 dates Fenton to 1252 under that heading.
This device is clear of Ian Griffen the Archer (Apr. 1999 via Atenveldt), (Fieldless) A sheaf of three arrows inverted Or, fletched vert, with one CD for the field and another for arrangement.
39 Seamus mag Uidhir (m) - New Name & New Device
Per bend vert and Or, a harp Or and a stag's attire sable.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound. He requests authenticity for 12th century Irish language/culture.
Seamus is from OCM p.163, which says this name was used in the 13th and 14th centuries.
mag Uidhir is from Woulfe Irish Names and Surnames p.427, mentioned in 956. Use of this post-1200 spelling is supported by Woulfe's statement that "towards the end of the 13th century, the Maguires became chiefs of Fermanagh."
Submitted as Seamus Maguidhir, the name has been changed to match the available documentation.
40 Sigismund Greussen
(m) - New Name Change & New Device
Gules, a bear rampant ermine.
His current name was registered in June 1995 via the East, and is to be released upon registration of this submission. If his name must be changed, he cares most about German language/culture.
Sigismund is from Bahlow Deutsches Namenlexicon, which says that this is a derivative of Siegmund (under that heading, p. 484) and dates a 'Sigismund Atze' to 1451.
Greussen is from Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen p. 590, which dates a 'Georg Greussen' to 1493.
41 Sorcha Ruadh - New Device Change
Per bend sinister engrailed argent and vert, a phoenix gules, head to sinister, and a natural dolphin Or.
Her name and previous device, Per bend sinister engrailed sable and vert, a decrescent argent and a natural dolphin naiant Or, were registered in January 2003 via the East. Her old device is to be released upon registration of the new one.
42 Talan Hackewrist (m) - New Name & New Device
Per pale gules and sable, a demi-bat displayed head to sinister, on a chief argent three mullets of six points sable.
If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning 'one known for sword-cuts on the wrist'.
Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin Manumissions ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Bodmin/celtic.html) has 'Talan' as a probably masculine given name, listed in the Llandav charter as a clerical witness and in the Redon charter as a lay witness. The article also has 'Telent', again as probably masculine, with three examples in Redon. 'Talan' also appears in CA #66 as a male given name.
Hackewrist is a constructed byname. Jönsjö lists all of the following: Crakebone 1279, Crakebon 1378 'crack bone'; Craketo 1279 'crack toe' (R&W p. 114 s.n. Crackbone); Briseban 1275, Brusebon 1297, Brisbone 1298 'break bone' (p. 65 s.n. Brisbane); Brekeleg 1243 (p. 62 s.n. Breakleg); and Hackebon 1277 (p. 21 s.n. Hackbon). Other compounds with 'hack' include Hakesalt 1212, Hackesalt 1297, Hacsalt 1387 'hack salt'(p. 210 s.n. Hackshall); Hackesmal e13th, Hacsmal 1301, Hacksmal 1327, Hakepetit 1202 'hack small'; Haccemus 1148 'hack mouse' (s.n. Hacksmall); and Hackewude 1230, Hackewode 1327 (s.n. Hackwood); and with 'cut' there's Cutbussh 1450 'cut bush' (p. 122 s.n. Cutbush); Cuttelard 1486 'cut lard', Cuttekaple 1247 'cut horse', Cuttegos 1247 'cut goose', Cuteharing 1206 'cut herring', and Cuttepurs 1275 'cut purse' (s.n. Cutlard). Given the verb + noun pattern here, and that Clark Hall & Meritt, Anglo-Saxon Dictionary has wrist 'wrist' p.422 and bite 'bite, sting, sword-cut' p.50, it is felt that this is acceptable.
Submitted as Talan Wristbite; commenters were unconvinced that "wristbite" is a plausible constructed byname for someone notorious for hitting people on the wrist during practice.One problem is that neither "wrist" nor "bite" appear to have been used in names. Based on other bynames describing blows to body parts, "wrist" seems a reasonable extrapolation, but a specific nuance of meaning like "bite" meaning 'stinging blow' is much harder to justify.
Another problem is that the examples in Jönsjö of 'noun + noun' constructions are almost all interpretable as "something's something": Bulheved, Doggelegg, Haukeseye, Haukesheued, etc. The exceptions (Milke and bred and similar compounds and Testifer [teste de fer 'balls of iron']) offer no support for the submitted construction 'body part + action'. If "bite" is taken to be a verb instead of a noun, then the order of parts is wrong: Jönsjö lists only one example of 'noun + verb', the French greeting or exclamation Deubenie [Deu beneir, 'God bless you'].
43 Tassi gylðir - New Device
Sable, two chevrons between three wolves rampant contourny Or.
His name was registered in August 2006, via the East. His previous device submission, Sable, a chevron between three wolves rampant Or, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Bran Davison of Clan Chattan (Nov 95 Outlands), Sable, a chevron ployé between two tabors and a boar's head couped Or. This submission changes the number of primary charges to clear that conflict.
44 Tat'iana Terent'eva (f) - New Name & New Device
Argent, a dragonfly purpure and a point pointed vert.
If her name must be changed, she cares most about the spelling of the given name.
Tat'iana is dated as a feminine given name to 1498 in Wickenden (3rd ed. p.360).
Terent'eva is from Wickenden p.363 sn Terentii, which has the masculine patronymic Terent'ev dated to 1393, and the feminine Terent'eva to 1500.
This device is clear of the College of Windreach (Mar. 1999 via the Middle), (Fieldless) A dragonfly purpure, with one CD for the field and another for addition of the point pointed.
45 Þórlæifr hvítskegg (m) - New Name
If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning and sound.
Þorleifr appears in Viking Names found in the Landnámabók by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html). The spelling Þorlæifr is based on the information found in Nordiskt runnamnslexikon (The Dictionary of Norse Runic Names) by Lena Peterson ( http://www.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472), which has the following entry: læifR / -lafR m. From proto-Scandinavian *-laibaR, a formation from the stem in OW.Norse leif f. "inheritance, legacy", but as an element in personal names "one who comes after, heir." ... Compounds: -læifR: ... Hróð-, Ó-, Þór-, Ví, ... (No, Blue Tyger does not pretend to understand this, but it apparently made sense to Eastern Crown).
hvítkegg is a constructed byname meaning 'white beard', based on elements of documented Old Norse bynames. Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html) contains the following examples of bynames describing beards: bláskegg = black beard, breidðskeggr = broad bearded, flöskuskegg = flask beard, gullskeggr = gold beard, and refskegg = fox beard. The same article also contains two examples of bynames using the element 'hvít' to signify 'white', including one example of a white body part: hvítaský = white cloud, and hvítbeinn = white leg. Based on these examples, the submitter believes that 'hvítkegg' is a plausible constructed Old Norse byname meaning 'white beard'.
Submitted as hvítkegg, the byname was missing an 's': Geirr Bassi p. 27 has Skegg- 'Beard-' and skegglauss 'beardless'. The byname has therefore been corrected to hvítskegg.
46 Toi Poisson de Mortagne - New Device
Azure, in pale three fish and a chief invected argent.
Her name was registered in September 2005 via the East.
This is clear of Veronica da Lugano (Apr. 2005 via the West), Azure, in pale three fish Or, an orle argent, with one CD for the tincture of the fish and another for the type of peripheral. It's also clear of Margery Colvere (Jan. 2005 via Northshield), Azure, in pale two trout argent, with one CD for the number of fish, and another for the peripheral charge.
47 Tomasz Tomashevskoi (m) - New Name
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound 'shevski'.
Wickenden p.93 s.n. Foma lists a 'Tomasz Andryssowicz' in 1558.
Ibid. under patronymic variants has 'Tomashevskoi' 1623-4.
48 Tomasz Tomashevskoi and Piers Campbell - New Household
No major changes. Piers' name was registered in October 1993 via the East. Tomasz's name is submitted elsewhere on this letter. If the name must be changed, the sound is most important. They also request that the spelling of 'Campbell' not be changed.
Black Surnames of Scotland p.130 sn Campbell dates 'Duncan Campbell dominus de Gaunan' to "about 1390", 'Nigellus filius Colini Campbell' 1282, and 'Campbele' 1481.
Johnston Placenames of Scotland p.84 sn Applecross dates 'Appillcroce' 1510, 'Abilcros' 1515, and 'Apuorcrossan' 737. R&W p. 12 s.n. Appleton dates de Appleton' to 1196, and p. 118 s.n. Crossley there's Crossley 1481. These support the submitted spelling as a possible (though perhaps not likely) period form of this name.
The town of Applecross does not appear to have any particular historical connection with the real Clan Campbell, so there shouldn't be any question of presumption.
49 Ulric Bryars (m) - New Name & New Device
Sable, three wolf heads erased within a wreath of thorns argent.
Ulric is from Withycombe, which has this as a header form p. 284. She has among the dated forms 'Ulricus' 1086 and 'Wlfric' 1273. Searle lists Ulric s.n. Ulfric and says "nomen viri ellis abc." Withycombe says, "The modern form, Ulric, is apparently a revival of the Norman-French spelling, which occurs in DB." R&W p. 502 s.n. Woolrich adds Wlricus filius Actman 1198, among others; this is a Latinized version of Wlric, which is in turn an orthographic variant of Ulric.
Bryars is from RW p.64 sn Briars, which has 'Bryars' as an undated header form. They date a 'John in le Breres' 1279 with the meaning 'dweller among the brambles.' F.K. & S Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602 has "Bryars, La. 14."
50 Wilhelm van Utrecht (m) - New Name & New Device
Gyronny vert and Or, a double-headed eagle gules and a bordure counterchanged.
Wilhelm is a Germanic given name formed from the elements 'Wil-' and '-helm'. Found in the Lowlands in various spellings during the 1200s and 1300s. Dutch Names 1393-96 by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/dutch/dutch14.html) sn Willem has the spelling 'Wilhelmus', and Given Names in the Low Lands 1250-1300 by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen ( http://www.keesn.nl/name13/) has the spellings 'Wilhelmus' and 'Willelm'. The submitter prefers the spelling 'Wilhelm'.
'van' is a Dutch locative preposition.
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "Utrecht was chartered in 1122 and had a city council as early as 1304. Utrecht's greatest prosperity was in the 11th and 12th centuries, but throughout the Middle Ages it remained the most powerful and important town in the northern Netherlands" ( http://www.britannica.com/). Note that "Names from Antwerp, 1443-1561" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael and Kymma Godric ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/dutch/plaiser.html) has Wilhelm 1548 and van Utrecht 1547 (twice).
51 Wystan Healfdene (m) - New Name & New Device
Quarterly Or and azure, an awl and a mallet in saltire counterchanged.
No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.
Withycombe p.294 s.n. Wystan dates the header spelling to 1190. Oxford Dictionary of Saints p. 502 s.n. Wistan has the header spelling dated to 850 and also lists the variant Wystan.
RW p.212 s.n. Haldane derives the name from Anglo-Scandinavian Healfdene 'half Dane'. Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum p. 284 dates 'Healfdene' to 958, 1018, 1019, 1033.
52 Yaacov ben haRav Elieser (m) - New Name & New Device
Barry dancetty argent and azure.
No major changes.
Yaakov is found in Julie Stampnitzky's "Names of Jewish Men, 6th to 11th Centuries" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/sixth.html) and "Names from Hebrew Chronicles of the 10th to 13th Centuries" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/crusades.html), which lists Yaakov 13 times. She notes "My transliterations are not the only possible way to spell these names." Thus the c/k and s/z substitutions in these names should be fine.
ben haRav can be found in Individuals Mentioned in Hebrew Accounts, 12th-13th centuries, also by Julie Stampnitzky under Pforzheim, Germany 1267 has 'haRav Shmuel ben haRav Yakar haLevi' (this article is not currently online). Her "Database of Medieval Jewish Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/main.html) has a glossary of titles and bynames ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/titles.html), which lists Rav as one of the bynames meaning 'Rabbi', and ha- as a Hebrew prefix meaning 'the'.
Elieser is in The Hebrew Chronicles article from above, which lists 'Eliezer' 6 times. 'Eliezer' is found in Eleazar ha-Levi's "Jewish Naming Conventions in Angevin England" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jewish.html), Yehoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi's "Names of Rabbis in Pirkei Avot" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Jewish/perkei_avot.html), and 13 times in his "Names of Jews in Rome in the 1550s" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/Jewish/rome_article.html). The spelling Elieser is dated to the 12th century in Aryanhwy's "Jewish Given Names Found in Les Noms Des Israélites en France" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/jewish/levy/).
Permission to conflict with Arval Benicoeur's badge, (Fieldless) A fountain, is included. Commenters interpreted recent precedent on fountains (Atlantia, Kingdom of, badge for Order of the Fountain; 06/05 R-Atlantia) as meaning that this device is clear of Arval's badge by RfS X.1. (Addition of Primary Charges). It's definitely clear of both Hungary Ancient (Dec. 1994 via Laurel), Barry argent and gules [which should technically be Barry gules and argent, but never mind] and Beautrice Hammeltoune (Nov. 1998 via Æthelmearc), Barry azure and ermine, with one CD for changing half the field tincture, and another for changing the line of division.
53 Yon de la Sèle - Resub Device
Vert, a squirrel argent maintaining an acorn proper, within a bordure potenty Or.
His name was registered in January 2004 via the East. His previous device submission, Per pale sable and gules, a dragon segreant contourny Or, was returned at the same time for conflict with William Thespos Dragonsclaw (Mar 83 West). This is a complete redesign.
There are 33 new names, 3 new name changes, 40 new devices, 4 new device changes, 1 new household name, and 4 new badges for a total of 85 new items. There is also 1 device resubmission, for a grand total of 86 actions. A check for $340 will be forwarded to Laurel under a separate cover.
Until next month, I remain,
Istvan Blue Tyger
Sources which are cited in full in the main body of the letter are omitted from this list. Sources appearing in boldface below are in Appendix H of the Administrative Handbook (the No Photocopy list).
Bahlow, Hans; Deutsches Namenlexikon: Familien- und Vornamen nach Ursprung und Sinn erklärt; Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Verlag, 1985, 1990.
Bahlow, Hans; Unsere Vornamen im Wandel der Jahrhunderte; Limburg a. d. Lahn: C. A. Starke Verlag, 1965.
Bardsley, Charles Wareing; A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames; Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1980.
Black, George F; The Surnames of Scotland: Their Origin, Meaning, and History; New York Public Library, New York, 1946, 1986.
Brechenmacher, Josef Karlmann; Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Deutschen Familiennamen; Limburg a. d. Lahn: C. A. Starke Verlag, 1957-60.
Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme and Akagawa Yoshio; A Pictorial Dictionary of Heraldry, 2nd ed., 1992.
Clark Hall, John R. and Herbert D. Meritt: A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 4th ed.; Cambridge University Press, 1970.
Dauzat, Albert; Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France; Libraire Larousse, Paris, 1987.
Dauzat, Albert, Jean Dubois, and Henri Mitterand. Nouveau Dictionnaire E/tymologique et Historique. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1964.
de Felice, Emidio; Dizionario dei cognomi italiani; Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori, 1978.
Díez Melcón, R. P. Gonzalo; Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses: Siglos IX-XIII, ambos inclusive; Universidad de Granada, Spain, 1957.
Ekwall, Eilert; The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 4th ed.; Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.
Farmer, David Hugh; The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, 2nd ed.; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Flutre, Louis-Fernand; Table des noms propres avec toutes leurs variantes, figurant dans les romans du Moyen Age écrits en français ou en provençal et actuellement publiés ou analysés; Poitiers: Centre d'études supérieures de civilisation médiévale, 1962.
Geirr Bassi Haraldsson; The Old Norse Name; Studia Marklandica, Yggsalr Press. Professor G. Fleck, Olney, Maryland, 1977.
Herlihy, David, R. Burr Litchfield, and Anthony Molho, "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532"; Brown University, Providence, RI, 2000. http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/
Herlihy, David and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, "Census and Property Survey of Florentine Domains in the Province of Tuscany, 1427-1480", Machine readable data file. Online Catasto of 1427 Version 1.1. Online Florentine Renaissance Resources: Brown University, Providence, R.I., 1996. http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/overview.html
Hitching, F. K., and S. Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1998.
Johnston, James B.; Place-Names of Scotland, 3rd ed.; John Murray, London, 1934.
Jones, Heather Rose (aka Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn); The Compleat Anachronist #66, "A Welsh Miscellany", Milpitas, CA, 1993.
Jönsjö, Jan; Studies on Middle English Nicknames, Vol. 1: Compounds. Lund Studies in English 55, Sweden, 1979.
Lessing, Ferdinand D., ed.: Mongolian-English Dictionary; Bloomington, Indiana Mongolia Society, 1995.
Le Livre de la Taille de Paris pour l'an 1292. Unknown author, publisher, and date. It was a big, flat thing on the shelf at the Point.
Lind, E.H., Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn från Medeltiden. Uppsala & Leipzig: 1905-1915, sup. Oslo, Uppsala and Kobenhavn: 1931.
Morlet, Marie-Thérèse; Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de l'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Siècle, three volumes; Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1968, 1972, 1985.
ÓCorráin, Donnchadh & Fidelma Maguire; Irish Names; The Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.
Paul Wickenden of Thanet; A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, 3rd ed.; Free Trumpet Press West, Normal, Ilinois, 2000.
Peterson, Lena, "Nordiskt runnamnslexikon". Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research, 2001. http://www.sofi.se/SOFIU/runlex/
Reaney, P.H. & R.M. Wilson; A Dictionary of English Surnames, revised (3rd) edition; Oxford University Press, 1995.
Rhian Lyth; "Italian Personal Names". Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings, Caidan Heraldic Symposium and Scribe's Conclave, vol. I, p. 107; Los Angeles, 1989.
Searle, William George; Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1897.
Withycombe, E. G.; The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd ed.; Oxford University Press, 1988.
Woulfe, Patrick; Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames; Irish Genealogical Foundation, Box 7575, Kansas City, Missourri 64116.
Zoëga, Geir T.; A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York.