Lewis Tanzos

15 September, 2003

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Eastern Crown Herald!

This LoR contains decisions on the letter dated 15 July, 2003. There were 33 numbered items.

I'd like to thank the active heralds in the East Kingdom College of Heralds. Between submitted documentation and commentary, this was a very easy letter for me to decide. The quality of submitted documentation has gone up quite a bit in the past year. Whatever the reason, it looks like the heralds in the East are more knowledgable, more motivated, and more in tune with the requirements of the SCA's College of Arms. Yes, we still have a way to go before we're teaching the other kingdoms amazing things, but we've completed a large step. Vivat to all of you!

Commenters included: Kanute, Robert fitzThomas, Arval Benicoeur, Aryanhwy merch Catmael , Ulric von der Insel , Cateline la souriete, Kolosvari Arpad and his wife Julia, and John FitzArnulf de Lithia. The usual immense thanks to all those who commented!

As has become my custom, documentation submitted with the forms is in bold face, and the discussion and additional documentation is taken from commentary and additional research.

In service,

Istvan Eastern Crown

1 Alis de Warrum (F) - new name forwarded

Submitter wishes her name to be made authentic for 1200-1250 Yorkshire England, though she wants the spelling 'Alis' or 'Alys' instead of 'Alice' or 'Alyce'. She is willing to take 'of' or 'de', whichever is more appropriate, but does not want 'aet'. 'Alis' dated in that spelling to 1200 and 1214 in Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames by Talan Gwynek ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html ). 'Wharram' is listed on two web pages, included with the submission, at http://loki.stockton.edu/~ken/wharram/wharram.htm and http://www.woldsway.gov.uk/wharram.htm .

Submitted as 'Alis of Wharram', the submitter requested authenticity for 1200-1250 Yorkshire England.

Reaney & Wi1son p. 484 under Wharram dates Hog de Warrum to 1219. Given the dated spelling of Alis from Talan's article (1214), this allows us to fullfil the submitter's desire for authenticity.

2 Anne Botman - resub device forwarded

Azure, a water-bouget and on a chief Or, three fountains.

Name accepted on the East's December 2002 LoI, which has not yet been issued to Laurel.

3 Anne Guest - new device forwarded

Gules, two zebras Or striped sable salient respectant.

Name registered in October 2002.

4 Aodhan O'Dunlaing (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Quarterly argent and azure, a lion's head erased Or langued gules, on a chief sable, three increscents argent.

Aodhán is a header spelling in OCM p. 13: Áedán, Aodhán in the header, but all the dated spellings are Áedán. Woulfe has the header O Dúnlaing, O Dunlaing p. 519, but no dated forms. O'Corrain & Maguire page 81 header Dúnlang dates the name to 988 and 1153.

The name, in some form, is registerable. Eastern Crown does not pretend to understand Gaelic names, so we're passing this to Laurel unchanged, though the final form will likely be something like 'Aedan hua Dunlaing' as 'hua' is the earlier patronymic form. Also, note that the personal name went out of common use in the 10th century and the 'O' form of the patronymic did not arise until the late 10th century. So, yes, there's a time span difference, but it's less than the 300 years that the College of Arms allows without comment.

5 Arthur de Beaumont - resub device forwarded

Argent, within a cross moline disjointed vert nine roses in cross gules seeded Or.

His name was registered in April of 2002.

6 Cathal na Seoltadh (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Per fess indented Or and azure, a sea-lion gules and three mullets Or.

'Cathal' from Mari Elsbeth nic Bryan's Index of Names in Irish Annals ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Cathal.shtml ) dated from 1059 to 1578. 'na Seoltadh' from the same, dated to 1568 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/naSeoltadh.shtml ).

7 Ceinwen merch Hugh (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Azure, crucilly flory Or, a dove migrant bendwise sinister argent.

'Ceinwen' from Tangwystyl's A Welsh Miscellany, CA #66, p. 31. 'merch' means 'daughter of'. 'Hugh' presented as an Old English name; ex. St. Hugh of Lincoln b. 1135 (NDP).

Hugh is also found in the spelling 'Hughe' in A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts) by Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh16.html). The spelling 'Hugh' is found 46 times in Late Sixteenth Century English Given Names by Talan Gwynek ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng16/eng16alpha.html).

This may need to be 'Ceinwen verch Hugh', since the form 'merch' mutated at some point.

The armory is clear of the following with a CD for the addition of the crosses and a CD for the change of orientation of the primary in each case: Dovanna of Atenveldt (August 1971, via Atenveldt): Azure, a dove wings displayed and inverted argent, perched upon an olive branch fesswise proper. Este, House of (December 1994, via Laurel): Azure, an eagle displayed argent crowned Or. Francesca of Bright Angel (January 1973): Azure, a dove displayed, head elevated argent.

8 Christian Woolfe (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Per fess azure and argent, three thistles argent and a tree stump eradicated proper.

'Christian' from Reaney & Wilson, p. 96, under that heading, undated. 'Woolfe' from the same, p. 498, under the header 'Wolf, Wolfe, Wolfes, Woolf, Woolfe, Wulff, Woof, Wooff', also undated.

Withycombe lists 'Christian' under that header, p. 64, and says, 'The name is found from about 1200, but has never been common in this country'. 'Christian' is dated in that spelling to 1424 and 1562 as a female name under the header 'Christian(a)'. Reaney &Wilson p. 96 under Christian list Thomas filius Cristian 1228 and Robert Crestien 1163. Black p. 150 under Christian cites Christianus, bishop of Candida Casa, who died in 1186.

Black s.n. Wolf has 'Wolfe' in 1408. Julie Stampnitzky, Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615, http://www.yucs.org/~jules/names/parish/surnames_wy.html , has 'Woolfe' 1609. Reaney &Wilson under Wolf p. 498 list Robert Wulf 1166 and John le Wolf 1279.

9 Christos di Cherubino (M) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Azure, a cherub proper and on a chief gules, three chalices Or.

'Christos' is presented as the submitter's mundane name, though no proof of this is attached. 'di Cherubino' is mentioned in S. Gabriel Academy Report #2461 ; 'Christo de Cherubino' is given as a reasonable late-period Italian name, as 'Cherubino' is found as a given name in 15th century Florence.

The Gabriel report says, in part:

We found evidence of the Greek name 'Khristós' among the Greek-speaking population of 14th century Crete, where it appears in Latin documents in the Italian form 'Christo' [1]."

"Florentine records of the 15th century include the given name 'Cherubino' [4]."

[1] McKee, Sally, Wills from Late Medieval Venetian Crete 1312-1420, 3 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998, ISBN 0884022455). See also Emidio De Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani (Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, 1992), s.n. Cristo, who states that 'Cristo' is an Italian form of 'Christós'.

[4] Herlihy, David, R. Burr Litchfield, and Anthony Molho, "Florentine Renaissance Resources: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" (WWW: Brown University, Providence, RI, 2000). http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/

We will be contacting the submitter for proper proof of his given name.

This device violates the rule of tincture. A gules chief can not be placed on an azure field, as there is not considered to be enough contrast between the two. Additionally, since cherubs are not found in nature, there can be no such thing as a cherub 'proper'.

10 Derborgaill Buitiler - new badge returned

(Fieldless) A plate charged with a lion rampant vert.

Name in process; it passed on the East's October 15, 2002 IloI, and was sent to Laurel in June of 2003.

Since the rondel (plate) is a medium for heraldic display, this is equivalent to "Argent, a lion rampant vert." As such, it conflicts with the armory of Jehanne de St. Brieuc (May 1983, via the Middle) who bears "Argent, a cat rampant guardant vert between in cross four pellets." with a single CD for the removal of the secondaries on the new armory. It also conflicts with that of Robert of Westmarch (July of 1974): "Sable, a lion rampant vert, fimbriated argent." with but a single CD for the change of field. It also conflicts with: Houri the Savage - (January of 1973) Argent, a lion rampant sable armed, orbed and langued gules. Leon - (December of 1994 via Laurel): Argent, a lion rampant purpure., and Leon - (December of 1994 via Laurel): Argent, a lion rampant gules. with only a single CD for the tincture of the primary charge.

11 Edmund de Wilden (M) - new name forwarded

'Edmund' found in Withycombe, 3rd ed., under the header 'Edmond', p. 93. King Edmund Ironside of England (981-1016), St. Edmund (d. 870), St. Edmund Rich (1170-1240). 'Wilden' found in Reaney & Wilson, revised. ed., p. 492: William de Wilden, 1221.

R&W s.n. Wilden actually has de Wilden' 1221. The apostrophe indicates an omitted letter, probably an '-e'. However, it also lists 'Willeden' 1327 and 'Wylden' 1370-1

Ekwall p. 519 under Wilden (Bd) dates the spelling Wilden to 1163.

12 Fionnghuala Chairbreach (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Gyronny azure and Or, a bear rampant sable between four decrescents counterchanged.

'Fionnghuala' dated in that spelling to 1200-1550 in Index of Names in Irish Annals: Feminine Given Names 1201 - 1600 by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/1201-1600.shtml ). 'Cairbreach' dated in that spelling to 1225, 1235, 1240, 1242, 1385, 1456, and 1461 in Index of Names in Irish Annals: Descriptive Bynames: Cairbreach, also by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Cairbreach.shtml ).

We have put the surname into the genitive form. The byname means "from Carbery".

13 Gráinne inghean uí Bhrolacháin - new household name returned

Submitted Name: House Iron Phoenix

This name is not an authentic household name. There is no way to make it authentic. In fact, there is no way to document it under any of the patterns that Laurel accepts for household names. Order names and inn signs, two of the acceptable patterns, never used materials in names, only colors. How does one know just by looking at it that a sign is 'iron'?

The OED doesn't have the spelling 'phoenix' until the 16th century (when it is actually 'phœnix'). Before that the word was most often 'fenix', occasionally 'phenix' or 'fenyce'.

14 Guillaume de Cambrai (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Quarterly gules and argent, a cross between four mascles all counterchanged

'Guillaume' found in Flemish Given Names from Bruges, 1400-1600 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/given-list.html, PCA). Also in Colm Dubh's An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris: Guillaume le maingnen'. ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html) 'de Cambrai' found in French/Occitan Names from the XII Century ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ramon/accitan/occitan_g.html, PCA) 'Gautier de Cambrai'.

Some additional documentation: Dauzat & Rostaing, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France s.n. Cambrai lists the following dated spellings: Chambray 1015, Cammeragus 1015, Cambrin 1261, Camberin 1343, Camberon 1100, Chaumeri 1144, Chameriacum 1214, Camerei 1067, Cameriacum 1074, Chamairacum 1245, Camariacus 802, Chemeri 1606, Chemery 1571, Chimireio 1100. Reaney & Wilson p. 81 under Cambray lists Godefidus de Cambrai dated to 1086.

15 Isabel of Rosley - resub badge forwarded

(Fieldless) An old English letter "R" argent, charged in base with a rose proper.

Badge to be jointly owned with Alan of Rosley. Both owner's names were registered in May 2003, via the East.

16 Isabel Ximenez de Gaucin - resub device forwarded

Or, a chevron inverted purpure between three trilliums gules

Name registered as Isabel Jimenez de Gaucin in April of 1998, via the Middle.

There was some concern that the submission has the lower flowers in an unblazonable position. They are definitely very crowded. This may be returned at Laurel for this reason. The submitter has been told to draw the flowers smaller to properly fit in the space so they're not squished.

17 Jehanne la Doulce (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Per pale sable and azure, two horses combattant Or and a fire proper.

'Jehanne' from An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris by Colm Dubh ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ), also found in Le Menagier de Paris, p. 5. 'la Doulce' means 'the sweet' or 'the gentle' in French; several examples of a subjective adjective as a byname are found in An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris, including 'Edeline l'Enragié' (the enraged), 'Helyot le ribaut' (the ribald), 'Nicolas le gay' (the happy). The use of 'la' as a linking article is shown in An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris, in the name 'Jehanne la Normandie', and also in Le Menagier de Paris, p. 5, in the name 'Jehanne la Quintine'. This spelling of 'doulce' can be found in Le Menagier de Paris, p. 12 .

18 Jehanne Urchurdan - new household name returned

Submitted Name: Sea Dragon Keep

The only documentation included is a statement that 'sea dragon' appears in the OED dated 1551

Her name was registered in July of 1984, via the East.

No actual evidence was submitted, and none could be found, that this name fits any of the patterns that Laurel allows for household name. In absence of this, we must return the name.

19 Klaus the Red - appeal badge supported

(Fieldless) A helm sable, torsed bendy Or and sable, mantled and crested of a crescent Or.

His name was registered in September of 2000, via the West.

If you're interested, see the ILoI for details. This goes to Laurel automatically.

20 Leofric Silverwater (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Argent, a fox rampant azure, on a chief purpure, three roundels Or.

'Leofric' cited in several sources, most with no documentation attached; the only one with documentation is the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England project ( http://www.asnc.cam.ac.uk/pase/Level1/Level2/Level3/L.html, PCA). This source appears to date Leofric to a variety of dates between 983 and 1057. 'Silverwater' is presented as 'a constructed byname which appears to be consistent with both period and SCA naming practice'.

Withycombe p. 193 under Leofric lists Leofric(us) 1086 (from the Domesday Book). To our surprise, Silverwater is not an unreasonable medieval place name. R&W s.nn. Silver, Silverlock, Silverside shows several surnames that compound 'Silver-'. One is occupational, 'Silverhewer' 1212. Several are descriptions of the bearer, e.g. 'Silverloc' 1268, 'Silvereghe' "silver eye" 1414-15, 'Siluermouth' 1379, 'Silvertop' 1478. But he also has 'Siluerside' 1379 and 'de Silversyd' 1397, from a place 'Silver Side' in Farlam, Cumberland; and 'Thomas of the silvere' 1332 "dweller by the silvery stream". Ekwall p. 329 under Monksilver talks about "silver" in stream names such as Silver Beck in Cumberland, with Siluerbeck dated to 1285. Monksilver also has the following citations: Sulfhere 897, Selvere, Selvre DB, Siluria Hy2, Monksilver 1249. Ekwall theorizes that Silver refers to clear water. Smith vol. 2 under seolfor says "In some p.ns. and stream-names it might allude to the color or appearance...." On p. 238 of Smith under waeter, he says, "When it means 'stream, river', it is usually combined with (i) descriptive adjs." with citations for Blackwater (Blakewatere, 1279), Broadwater, Freshwater, Loudwater, Shallow Water, Southwater. Silverwater would appear to fit right in, particularly since we can demonstrate that silver was an adjective that was applied to water.

The client and submitting herald should be aware that if our commenters had not done a fantastic job, this would have been returned. A statement that something appears to be compatible with SCA practices is not considered acceptable documentation.

21 Liadan ingen Aodhain (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Sable, a tree eradicated Or and a chief indented erminois.

Liadan from O'Corrain & Maguaire p. 122 s.n. Líadan, Líadain, Líadaine. "Líadan was also the name of the mother of St Ciarán of Seir. Líadan is also the name of one of the patron saints if the Dál Cais". It is, however, undated. inghean is 'daughter of'. Aodhán is a header spelling in O'Corrain & Maguaire p. 13: Áedán, Aodhán in the header, but all the dated spellings are Áedán.

We've changed the form of the patronymic to the earlier form, and lenited the father's name, as required. Laurel may decide to change this entirely to the earlier form of the name: 'Liadan ingen Aedain'. Even though it is undated, Saint's names are allowed, most recently per this precedent:

(October 2001, Turvon Kuznetsov) There was some discussion about the registerability of this name, since the dated examples for the given name and the byname have a temporal disparity of approximately 1400 years. The documentation for Turvon references a martyr who was a contemporary of the apostles. Given this information, the name Turvon falls into the category of a saint's name. As discussed in the September 2001 cover letter, a number of cultures had a tradition of giving their children the names of saints. Therefore, it is possible that this name remained in use long after Turvon's death, making this name registerable despite the temporal disparity in the name as documented. [Turvon Kuznetsov, 10/01, A-Atlantia]

Note that the registerability of Saint's names was affirmed on the Cover Letter to the LoAR for the September 2001 meetings:

So, in summary, given names which can be documented as the given name of a saint may be registered as a given name. The use of a name documented as a saint's name carries no weirdness in and of itself. The only weirdnesses that derive from using that name come from the lingual mix of the submitted form of the saint's name with the rest of the submitted name. [09/01, CL]

22 Maeve of Abbeydorney (F) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Vert, a whale naiant maintaining on its back a coracle Or, sail charged with a celtic cross vert.

'Maeve' from Ronan Coghlan's Book of Irish Names, First, Family & Place Names (PCA, though a copy of the title page is not included); p. 26, header 'Maeve'. The entry states: 'The name of the legendary queen of Connacht, who led an invasion of Ulster and was held at bay by Cuchulain until help arrived'. 'Abbeydorney' from Samuel Lewis's A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland (PCA, though again no copy of the title page is attached); p. 2, header 'Abbeydorney'. It states 'This place...takes its name from the ancient abbey of Kirie Eleyson, or O'Dorney, founded here in 1154'.

Coglan is not a suitable source for documentation. It is listed in Appendix F of the Admin Handbook (Names Sources to Be Avoided in Documentation). As such, the documentation must be re-done: Ó Corráin & Maguire p. 135 under Medb say Maeve is a currently-popular anglicisation of Medb, one of the 20 most popular late-medieval Irish names, but give no dated examples. Other (also undated) spellings listed are Meadhbh, Meadhbha, and Méabh. They also cite one Medb of the Ciarraige as the mother of St. Lugid mac Luchta.

Brown Mouse provided the following documentation for the surname: Flanagan & Flanagan p. 164 list Abbeydorney with the Gaelic form Mainister O'dTorna. Joyce vol. 1 p. 139-140 lists both forms but dates neither. He does say that the monastery was founded in 1154.

The web corroborates the 12th century origin of the abbey http://homepage.tinet.ie/~abbeydorney/, but of course doesn't include useful historical details.

There is a serious problem with this device. Precedent says:

Beacuse a charged sail appears to be an independent display of armory, it should be treated analogously to other armorial elements which might appear to include an indepenent display of armory. The most obvious analogous case is that of a flag or banner used as an armorial element. Precedent states "Charged banners [even if only maintained] are checked for conflict against already registered armory" (LoAR May 1999, p12). Therefore, it seems appropriate to rule that a charged sail must be checked for conflict against already registered armory. [ Eiríkr Mj{o,}ksiglandi Sigurðarson 6/03 ]

Due to this, we must consider the sail: Or a cross vert. for conflict. And it has conflicts. Among them are Catairiona ní Fhlannagáin (October 1994, via the West): Gyronny sable and argent, an equal-armed celtic cross vert. with a single CD for the field; and Morgana Swansdottir (January of 1973): Or, a Celtic cross equal armed, quarterly pierced and throughout vert. with at most a single CD for change to the type of cross.

It therefore must be returned.

23 Magnus Wolfhunte (M) - new name forwarded

'Magnus' dated in that spelling to 1200, 1207 in Withycombe, p. 203, under the header 'Magnus'. 'Wolfhunte' dated in that spelling to 1339 in Reaney & Wilson p. 498 under the header 'Wolfhunt': 'Walter le Wolfhunte 1339'.

All three dated examples of the byname in R&W s.n. Wolfhunt include the definite article, so the documented form of the byname is 'le Wolfhunte'. We are leaving this in the submitted form, with the understanding that Laurel may change the name to 'Magnus le Wolfhunte'.

24 Marcus Blackaert - resub device forwarded

Barry of five sable and Or, a lion rampant argent charged upon the shoulder with a heart sable, a bordure gules.

Name accepted on the East's September 2002 letter, and sent to Laurel in May of 2003.

Commenters mostly complained about the field not actually being neutral, but being sable. While it's undeniable that this would be better were there better contrast between the field and the bordure, it appears that the defining standard for non-neutrality of fields appears to be three-quarters of the field, not three-fifths. Those more interested in this question should see the topic 'Medium Contrast Fields' on the Cover Letter for the October 2000 LoAR.

Commenters also mentioned that the device without the bordure appears clear, that reversing the colors of the field would be better, and that adding a trait (barry of six, Or and sable) would make this a much better device. The submitter can take such action as he desires if the device does not pass Laurel.

25 Matthias de Kent (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Per chevron ermine and gules, a chevron sable between two roundels gules and an elephant's head cabossed Or.

'Matthias' from Withycombe, header 'Matthew, Matthias', dated forms from 1086 (Mattheus) through 1515 (Mathewe). 'de Kent' in Reaney & Wilson, header Kent, shows a Nicholas de Kent in 1185.

Withycombe specifically says that the Latin form 'Matthias' came into use only in the 17th century. Earlier Latin forms include 'Mattheus' and 'Matheus'. We're allowing it as a modern form of a documentable name, since it's a header form in Withycombe.

This is clear of Rosemund von Glinde (December 1992, via the East): Per chevron argent and gules, a chevron sable between three roses counterchanged, barbed and seeded proper. There is a CD for the type of secondary, there is a CD for the change to the field. There is also possibly a CD for the change of tincture to the bottom charge, but maybe not, since precedent limits us to a single CD for all changes to the bottommost charge of a two-and-one group. Thankfully, this is clear.

26 Maximilian Gunne (M) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Sable, in pale a heart and a chain of three links, the middle link fracted to base argent.

'Maximilian' from Bahlow's German Names, p. 322, dated in that spelling to 1459 under the header 'Max'. 'Gunn' from Black's Surnames of Scotland p. 332 under that header, undated.

Bahlow's Deutschlands Geographische Namenwelt has an entry for Gunne, a tributary of the river Lippe. Brechenmacher's Etymologisches Worterbuch Der Deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. 'Gönne' p. 577 has 'Hans Gunna' dated to 1418. Laurel may change to this, since the submitter is more concerned with the sound, and a German-Scots name is not particularly plausible (Indeed, it is a weirdness. See the submission of Siegfried McClure, 04/02).

The device conflicts with that of Solondra Carryl (December 1983, via Meridies): Sable, a heart argent. with a single CD for the addition of the chain.

27 Medb ingen Muiredaich - new device forwarded

Vert, three garbs argent.

28 Nechtan MacIver - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Or, a dolmen and on a chief vert three lozenges Or.

'Nechtan' from O'Corrain & Maguire p. 144 under that header; no specific dates are mentioned but there are two saints by that name (St. Nechtan of Kilanny near Dundalk, and St. Nechtan of Dungiven) and it says 'In the later middle ages, Nechtan was a favourite name among the O Donnels of Tir Chonaill'. [ Black p. 520, s.n. MacIver, gives lots of dated spellings but not 'MacIver' specifically: mac Ywar, 1219; McIuyr, 1292; M'Yuar, 1371; Yvari, 1427; McEuar, 1436; Makevire, Makewor and Makewore, 1479; M'Kywyr, 1488; McUvyr, 1499; McEvir or McEueyr, 1541; M'Keuir, 1562; and Makeuir, 1563. ]

The submitter might be interested to know that the given name was apparently pronounced \NYAHKHT-ahn\, where \KH\ is the sound of the 'ch' in Scottish 'loch'. The apostrophe in O Corrain and Maguire's pronunciation guides indicates palatalization of the preceding consonant, hence \NY\ (or more precisely \N~\) rather than just \N\. The byname is pronounced \mahk EE-vahr\.

'MacIver' is an anglicized spelling of 'mac Imhair' "son of Imhar". Black p. 520 under MacIvor lists the Gaelic form as MacIomhair. Eugenius M'Yuar is dated to 1371, Terlach McEuar dated 1436, Terlach McEuar 1436, Archibald Makevire 1476, Donald M'Kywyr 1488, John McEvir or McEueyr. O Corrain and Maguire s.n. Imar gives the later spelling 'Íomhar' and lists Ibor, Ibhar as the Irish form of the name.

Mixing Gaelic 'Nechtan' with the Anglicized 'MacIver' is technically incorrect, though legal. The ban on mixed English/Gaelic orthography was overturned in February 1999. The name would, in period, have been written entirely in one language or the other.

Laurel will probably change this to a fully Gaelic form, as the submitter requests.

29 Nyven Fiak (M) - new name returned & new device forwarded

Azure, on a fess Or a fox courant to sinister azure.

No major changes. If his name must be changed, the submitter is most interested in keeping the sound. All docs from Personal Names of the Isle of Man, by J.J. Kneen (PCA). 'Nyven' under the header 'Niven, Nyven', p. 14, undated. 'Fiach' under the header 'Fiak', p. 264, also undated, though it does say 'On a cross at Kirk Braddon'.

Submitted as 'Nyven Fiach', the name was registered at Laurel via the Middle Kingdom in August 1989. The mundane names and birthday match: this is the same person. Nyven gets a free submission if he submits another action within one year.

The device is clear of that of Caressa de Marchena (December 1999, via An Tir): Sable, on a fess Or a wolf statant gules. With a CD for the change of field and a CD for the multiple changes (tincture, facing) to the tertiary.

30 Robert the Builder (M) - new name forwarded

'Robert' from Bardsley's Dictionary of Welsh & English Surnames, header 'Builder': 'Robert Builder' dated to 1273. 'Builder' from the same citation.

The citations in Bardsley are Robert Bulder 1273, Rogerus Bulder 1379, Alicia Bulder 1379, and Johannes Bulder 1379. Reaney and Wilson p. 52 under Bolder list Albric Buldur 1203, Bate Bolder 1286, Richard Buldur 1379. Reaney suggests that the origin of this byname is "boulder", not "builder". The OED under "builder" lists the spellings "bilderis" c1380, "bilderes" 1382, "bylder" c1420, "builders" 1571, "builder" 1596. However, the OED does give "bulden" as an early Middle English form of build.

At least three commenters mentioned the contemporary cartoon character "Bob the Builder ". This is possibly obtrusively modern, based on the ruling from the 5 December 1992 Cover Letter

If that's the case, then we only need to worry about infringing on copyrights or trademarks when the intended use of the SCA-registered item is too close to the use of the trademarked item. In practice, I suppose this means fighting groups can't call themselves the West Kingdom Avengers or the Justice League of Atlantia - but I don't see that the Shire of the Storm really infringes on the superheroine Storm.

That leaves protection as Famous Literary Characters, and this is more subjective. I don't want to get into a debate as to whether comics are Literature-with-a-capital-L; it's the fame of the characters, not the quality of their scripting, that concerns us. Infringement requires the character's name to be well-known; unknown names, by definition, won't be recognized as comic book characters. (The issue is related, in a way, to that of intrusive modernity: if people recognize a name as a comic strip character, they automatically know it's not medieval.) Most people haven't heard of most comic book characters; and even well-known superhero names (Captain America, Wonder Woman, Batman, Spiderman) are usually returnable for non-period style as well.

There are thus few comic characters that need to be protected: the aforementioned Clark Kent, Bruce Wayne, possibly Mary Worth, Bart Simpson, Charlie Brown, perhaps a handful of others. Those conflicts are, unfortunately, valid - but they will, in all cases, depend on whether the character's name has seeped into the public consciousness. We can't depend on finding these items in general references, our usual standard for importance. I'll try to be as objective as I can, but it'll still boil down in most cases to polling Yeomen on the Road to see who's heard of the name.

and the May 1994 ruling on Johnny Quest:

[Returning John Quest.] Conflicts with Jonny Quest. (Yes, I know he's a cartoon character. He is also, based on the commentary and reactions among those attending the Laurel meeting, apparently sufficiently well-known to meet Baron Bruce's guidelines for conflict with cartoon characters. See Cover Letter of 5 December 1992, p. 2). The discussion in the LoI regarding the different derivations of John and Jonny are not really to the point. A significant percentage of people hearing the name John Quest will immediately think of the cartoon character (even the "non-herald" attending the Laurel meeting cited the cartoon character immediately upon hearing the name, with no other background or hints). (5/94)

Eastern Crown (having neither children, nor a TV) had never heard of Bob the Builder until this submission, so is soliciting the opinion of the CoA on whether this fits Bruce's standards.

31 Rosamund D'Alwareton - new badge forwarded

(Fieldless) A rose sable within and conjoined to a chaplet of thorns vert.

Name registered in November of 1990, via the East.

32 Sabatina da Valle - new device forwarded

Gules, on a chevron inverted between a sun and chess knight Or, two annulets gules.

Name accepted on the East's December 2002 Internal letter, which has not yet gone to Laurel as of this writing.

33 Thaddeus von Orlamuunde - resub device forwarded

Per pale sable and argent, a double-headed eagle displayed counterchanged, on a chief gules three caltrops argent.

Name accepted on the East's 2002-December letter, which has not gone to Laurel as of this writing.