Lewis Tanzos

9 April 2004

Greetings unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who receive this letter from Tanczos Istvan, Eastern Crown Herald! This is the Letter of Report containing the kingdom decisions for the Internal Letter of Intent dated 08 February 2004.

There were 17 numbered items.

Commenters included Kolozsvári Árpádné Julia; Sabine Berard; Aryanhwy merch Catmael; Ailis Linne; cnut/knut; Arval Benicoeur; Ulric von der Insel; Elias Gedney/Brandu; Auntie Wren; and Cateline la souriete. Many thanks, again, to all commenters, without whom my job would take even longer!

Also, many thanks to Gwalchmai ap Talan, who collated the commentary for this letter for me into a somewhat more usable format!

Once again, the original submission information is in boldface, my discussion and extra information follows in normal text.

With this letter, I'm starting a new policy for the office of Eastern Crown. We are no longer pending acceptable devices for returned names. There are enough records for us to keep without having to remember to check the pended armory against all incoming submissions. Especially since we keep not managing to match the armory with the name when the new name comes in.

1 Alison Winter - resub to kingdom device returned

Per chevron inverted argent and azure, a sun azure eclipsed, three snowflakes two and one argent.

Precedent says:

There was very little commentary on the issue of snowflakes, and only a small portion of that was in favor of retaining snowflakes as charges acceptable for registration in armory in the SCA. As a consequence, we will cease registering snowflakes in the future. (As always, people who already have registered snowflakes may apply the grandfather clause to future submissions.) If someone desires a snowflake, please try to steer them to an escarbuncle. (Cover Letter 8/94)

So this device must be returned.

2 Amina al-Dyula an-Nisa al-Songhayya (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Or, a camel and on a chief gules three cowrie shells argent.

Submitter wants a name meaning 'Amina from Songhay' and including 'Dyula' as her class, and wishes her name to be made authentic for 16th century Mali. 'Amina' found, undated, in 'Islamic Names' by Schimmel. 'Dyula an-Nisa': The dyula were a class of merchants in Songhay in the 1400's and 1500's (from 'Medieval Africa 1250-1800' by Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore, PCA). 'an-Nisa' is found undated in Schimmel, p. 48, meaning 'of the woman'. 'Songhayya': p. 10 of Schimmel shows how to form a locative surname from the place name - Baghdad becomes al-Baghdadiyya for a woman.

Submitted as Amina Dyula an-Nisa Songhayya. 'Amina' is found in Da'ud ibn Auda's 'Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm). From the same article, we see that occupational bynames were formed by adding 'al-' to the occupation; therefore it seems that 'Amina al-Dyula al-Songhayya' may be the more proper construction.

This may have two locative bynames, but some form of the name is nearly certainly registerable. It may or may not be authentic for the submitter's desired time and place. Laurel can change it to be more period for that time and/or place if so desired. Nobody at kingdom knows enough about Mali names.

This will be the first registration of a cowrie shell. Documentation that the cowrie shell is an artifact known in period can be had from various places online. http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba60/news.shtml, an article from British Archaeology Magazine, August 2001, shows that they were known in pre-historic times in Britain. "Trivia Monacha" and "Trivia Arctica", the European Cowrie are species native to the area, shown at http://ion.le.ac.uk/~ect/cowries/Taxonomy.html. Also, there is an article: Tortzig, Gustaf. "Beads made of cowrie shells from the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean found on Gotland." Trade and Exchange In prehistory: Studies in Honor of Berta Stjernquist. eds. Birgitta Hardh et al. Lund: Lunds Universitets Historiska Museum. 1988. pp. 287-294. , mentioned in Steffan's Florilegium at http://www.florilegium.org/files/ACCESS/beads-msg.html, which shows their existence at least in Viking times.

3 Antonio di Renzo (M) - new name returned

No major changes, minor changes to last name only. Desires authenticity for 16th century Italy. 'Antonio' from De Felice's 'Nomi' p. 69, undated. 'DiRenzo': p. 402 of De Felice has 'Rénzo -> Lorénzo', undated, and p. 238 s.n. 'Lorénzo' has 'Cola di Rienzo' 1354.

'Antonio' is found five times in Talan Gwynek's '15th Century Italian Men's Names' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian15m.html).

Submitted as 'Antonio DiRenzo', we have placed it into the proper medieval patronymic form. Unfortunately, either form is in conflict with "Antonio di Rienzo", registered in July of 2002, via Drachenwald. The conflict is based on sound of the name, not spelling, so either form would conflict.

4 Arden of Icomb (M) - new name returned & new device returned

Sable, a raven rising contourney argent and a base checky argent and sable.

'Arden' purportedly from the Domesday Boke (NDP). 'Icomb' is a header spelling in Mills p. 194, with dated spellings of 'Iccacumb' 781 and 'Iccumbe' 1086'.

We have been unable to find any evidence of 'Arden' as a given name, though it is an English place-name, found in Ekwall p. 12 s.n. 'Arden', dated in that spelling to 1244.

Icomb is a header in Ekwall, with dates 781, 964, 1135, and DB.

Precedent says:

[Per pale azure and argent, ... a chief checky azure and argent]There would be no problem with either an azure field or an argent field with a checky chief including that color; given that, there is no reason to not accept a split field with checky of both colors. [Gabrielle d'Anjou, 07/00,A-Meridies]

So the device is just fine, but since there's no name, we're returning the device.

5 Christina Elisabeth - new household name forwarded & new badge forwarded
Submitted Name: Inn of the Blue Gryphon

(Fieldless) A gryphon sejant contourney sustaining a spoon palewise azure.

No major changes. Desires household name meaning 'blue gryphon'. No documentation is included.

This follows the 'inn sign' pattern for household names in the SCA:

While there were no exact parallels in period to SCA households, there were historical groups that shared one or more functions with the latter. These include the Scots clans (Clan Stewart); ruling dynasties (House of Anjou); professional guilds (Baker's Guild of Augsburg, Worshipful Company of Coopers); military units, including mercenaries (The White Company); and inns (House of the White Hart). Such names as these groups took, then, should be the pattern on which SCA household names are built. (Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme, July 1992 Cover Letter)

Both names were registered in October 1992, via the East.

This more-or-less follows the patterns for inn and tavern names found in Mari's article "English Sign Names". The color+animal names (Grayhorse, Grayhound, Whitehorse, Whitelamb) are all written as one word, but there's also Black Boye 1522.

6 Eiríkr Úlfgeirsson (M) - resub to kingdom forwarded.

Wants authenticity for 9th century Norse. 'Eiríkr' from Geirr-Bassi p. 9. No documentation provided for 'Ulfguarr'. Original name, 'Eirikr Gunnarson' returned at kingdom in December of 2002 for conflict: Name conflicts with Eirik Gunnarson, registered October 1985, via the East. Device pended at that time.

Submitted as 'Eiríkr Ulfguarr', no documentation was provided for the surname and none can be found. Lind's Norsk-Isländska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn Från Medeltiden , column 1049, has the header Úlfgeirr, though it is undated. (Note that the entire book is medieval names). The text reads: "Úlfgeirr, -s. M. N. I en runinskr, på en ligande sten från Tjore, Sole s.n. Jæderen, h. biarnar ulfkæis sunar. " Since the Norse didn't use unmarked patronymics, we have placed it in the patyronymic, genitive form.

7 Emma Wen of Painscastle (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Vert, a feather bendwise sinister and in sinister chief an increscent Or.

No major changes. Wants an authentic name for 16th century Wales. Both 'Emma' and 'Wen' from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's 'A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh16.html). 'Painscastle' is found, dated to 1231, in John Garnons Williams's 'Wales at the Time of the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267 ( http://www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html, NPCA).

Morgan & Morgan s.n. Gwyn has a mid-16th century name Rowland Wyn ap Dd Wm of Penheskyn. Another 16th century name Catherine Wenn als Griffiths, of Maebroke, Salop. A bit later 1625 Cadwaldadr Wynn of Havodymaidd; 1629 Katherin Wen of Voylas. This construction was not used in Welsh, but it was used in English references to Welsh names, at least occasionally.

Morgan & Morgan p. 117 lists a John son of Johan wenne dated 1580, Alice Wen died 1625, Ales Wenne 1588.

For Painscastle, Cateline Brown Mouse found that John Speed's Atlas County of Radnor lists Painscastle Hundred and Castell payne for the village or place. The date on the map appears to be 1610. We also followed the URL for the original citation and have printed it out. More information on the castle can be had at http://www.castlewales.com/pains.html It was named after its initial builder, Pain Fitz-John, who died in 1137.

8 Erlan Norðskáld (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Argent, on a chief engrailed azure three crescents Or.

Wants a Norse/Scandinavian name meaning 'Bard from the Northlands'. 'Erlan from SMP, vol. 5, p 769. 'Norden' is presented as meaning 'North', but no documentation is given. 'Skáld-' is from Geirr-Bassi p. 27, and means 'skald or poet'. She is willing to change to an appropriate form of 'Norden'.

Submitted as 'Erlan Nordenskald', commenters came up with the following:

SMP h.5 p.769 has "Erla(n)-" under "Erland" among a list of cross-references; this one points to "Ærland" 1393. However, there is also a reference for "Erlanus" 1312 as a form of the same name. Also, Lind's supplement, s.n. Erlendr, column 242, lists "Ærlenz DN X 13 (Voss c. 1300)" and in col 243, "...Erllens, Erlens ... DN I 39 (1392)." (omissions mine). It should be noted that Erlendr starts in column 240 and goes to column 254, and nearly all of them have the 'd' on the end.

Geirr Bassi lists a few bynames referring to direction: austmáðr "east-man, man from continental Scandinavia" p 19, suða "south", suðeyingr "South-Islander, Hebrides" inn suðreyski "South-Islander, Hebrides" p. 28.

Smith part II p. 51 s.n. norð says it's OE and ON for "northern, north", and p. 52 s.n. Norðman derives "from ON Norð-maðr". Lind's Personbinames has Norðlendingr dated to 1213 as "norþlendingr"

Skald seems to be an occupational name which did acquire adjectives such as dáðaskáld "deed-skald" p. 20, hamarskáld "hammer-skald" p.22, illskælda "bad poet, plagiarizer" p. 23, jarlsskáld "earl's skald", svartaskáld "black-skald" p. 28, vandræðiskáld "difficult skald" p. 29.

'North-skald' seems to be a plausible construction, but we have put the byname into what seems to be a more plausible form.

There are too many engrailings and they are drawn too shallow. The submitter has been instructed to draw fewer, bolder engrailings.

9 Ian Morteyne (M) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Azure, a mullet of four points elongated towards base between four owls close and guardant argent.

Submitter wishes his name to be made authentic for 1100-1250 but does not wish the article 'de' to be used. 'Ian' was declared SCA-compatible by Jaella of Armida in April of 1997. 'Morteyne' dated to 1291 (William de Morteyne) in 'The History and Antiquities of Eyam' ( http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/DBY/Eyam/Wood/Church.html, PCA).

'Morteyne' also found in Bardsley, p. 542 s.n. 'Mortyn': 'Custance de Morteyne' dated to the reign of Edward I.

There is absolutely no way we can make this authentic: Ian is a modern name. Additionally, in the period he desires, the article 'de' would nearly certainly have been used. The name, however, is registerable.

Conflict with Jed Silverstar - April of 1980 (via Meridies): Azure, a mullet of four greater and eight lesser points between four piles issuant in saltire argent. There is only one CD for the change of type of secondaries. There is no difference granted for the minor points.

10 Katheryn Redmayne (F) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Azure, on a fess argent three domestic cats gules.

Submitter wishes to retain the sound if changes must be made. 'Katheryn' found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael's '16th Century Gloucestershire Names' ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/late16.html, NPCA). 'Redmayne' a header form in Reaney & Wilson p. 375 with the dated spellings of 'de Redeman' 1188 and 'Redmaine' 1674.

'Katheryn' also found dated to 1570 in Talan Gwynek's 'Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyHZ.html); as this is on the SCA web site, no photocopies are required. This device is in conflict with the flag of Argentina (September 1995,via Laurel): "Azure, on a fess argent a sun in splendor Or." There is but one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. It is also in conflict with the flag of Honduras "Azure, on a fess argent five mullets in saltire azure." (Sept 1995, via Laurel) for the same reason. Also Aithine nic Merril (August 1979, via the East): "Azure, upon a fess argent, a mole's paw print sable."

11 Mariota de la Moor (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded.

Pean, a fess between three mortars and pestles Or.

Submitter wishes to retain the sound if changes must be made. 'Mariota' from Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's 'An Index to the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England' ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/LincLSR/GivL.html, PCA). 'de la Moor': submitter cites 'well known author Dr. Thomas de la Moor 1327-1347' (NPCA) and also Reaney & Wilson s.n. 'Moor', which dates 'del More' to 1275 and 'de la More' to 1273.

12 Birna Rauða (F) - resub to kingdom name forwarded

Wants her name to be made authentic for 950's Norse. Original name submission, 'Rauða-Birna V{o,}lubrjótr' returned on the East's October 2003 letter for offensiveness: " This name is being returned for being offensive. The RfS, section IV, says: " Offensive names may not be registered, as is required by General Principle 2 of these rules. Names may be innately offensive from their content, like John Witchburner . A name element can also be offensive because of its usual associations or the context in which it is placed. Names may be considered offensive even if the submitter did not intend them to be. " The submitted surname means 'witch-breaker', far too like the unacceptable example given in the Rules for Submission." This submission omits the offensive element. 'Rauða' an epithet (prefix) found in Geir Bassi, p. 26. 'Birna' a feminine given name, Geir Bassi, pg. 8.

Submitted as Rauða-birna, this would be a one-element name, which is not allowed as per the Rules for Submission. We have made it into two elements, which have been swapped since the epithet needs to be the byname.

13 Santiago de Montoya (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Vert, a scimitar bendwise sinister and in dexter chief a sun argent.

No major changes. Wants an authentic name for 1501-1600 Spain. 'Santiago' found in '16th Century Spanish Names' by Elsbeth Anne Roth ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/spanish/male-given-alpha.html). 'de Montoya' found in 'Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century' by Juliana de Luna ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella/locative.html).

14 Sterling de la Rosa (M) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Argent, on a bend sinister azure between two wolf prints sable a rose argent between two hearts Or.

Submitter prefers to keep the sound. 'Sterling' is submitter's legal middle name; photocopies of his birth certificate are attached. 'Rosa' found as a surname meaning 'rose' in Juliana de Luna's 'Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century' ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/surnames-other.html, NPCA). Another part of the page ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/MenFullNames1.html, NPCA) lists several men with surnames of the form 'de la Noun': 'Diego Ruyz de la Escalera' and 'Juan de la Escalera' (Escalera=stairs); 'Pero Ruyz de la Mota' (mota=speck); 'Rodrigo de la Concha' (concha=shell); Alfonso de la Serna (serna=serenade); 'Diego de la Fuente' (fuente=source); 'Francisco de la Cerda' (cerda=bristle); 'Juan de la Carrera' (carerra=race); 'Juan de la Hoz' (hoz=sickle); 'Martin de la Nata' (nata=cream).

The fact that Sterling is his middle name means that it can be used as a given name if we can show that it's a second given name, or if we can show that it was used as a given name in period. . The rules for submission section II.4 specifically state that "Corresponding elements are defined by their type, not just their position in the name." Thus this middle name, which is a second given name, can be used in the SCA as a given name.

Documentation for it as a first name can be had from Reaney & Wilson's Dictionary of English Surnames under 'Starling' as 'Willelmus filius Sterling 1130-60', with the remark "A nickname from the bird, OE staerling 'starling', used also occasionally as a personal name."

'de la Rosa' can be found in this form Italy in 1561, according to Academy of St. Gabriel report #1554. http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi/1554.txt , so the construction is slightly more plausible.

15 Sterling de la Rosa - new household name forwarded & new badge forwarded
Submitted Name: House Hydra

Per bend wavy argent and azure, a heart and a tower counterchanged.

No major changes. 'House Hydra' follows the pattern of Inn Signs referenced in RFS III.2.b.iv: "Household names must follow the patterns of period names of organized groups of people. Possible models include Scottish clans ( Clan Stewart ), ruling dynasties ( House of Anjou ), professional guilds ( Bakers Guild of Augsburg , Worshipful Company of Coopers ), military units ( The White Company ), and inns ( House of the White Hart )." 'Hydra' is first found in English in the 16th century according to the OED.

16 Tanczos Istvan - new badge returned

(Fieldless) A staple sable.

This name was registered in May of 2002 (via the East).

Identical conflict with Athenais Bryenniss (Fieldless) A staple sable. , registered October 2003, via Artemisia. The only remaining fieldless single-tinctured staple available is purpure.

17 Wulfric bláskegg (M) - resub to kingdom name forwarded

Wants a Norse name meaning 'Wulfric Blackbeard'. 'Ulfr' found in Geirr-Bassi p. 15. 'bláskegg' found in same, p. 20, meaning 'black-beard'.

Though he submitted 'Ulfr', there is a note to the effect that he'd really like 'Wulfric' if possible. Woolf's 'The Old Germanic Principles of Name-Giving' dates 'Wulfric' to 1002 (p. 107).

Since English/Norse is a weirdness (Oddr ölfúss the Tanner 1/2002), and the citation in Woolf is English, this is acceptable, but not authentic. The Norse version would be something like 'Ulfrekr'. Reaney & Wilson s.n. Woolrich gives Wulfr(i-)c as the Old English form, Wlfric, Vlfric as forms dated to 1066.