Lewis Tanzos

21 June 2004

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Eastern Crown Herald!

This LoR contains decisions based on the ILoI issued on 03-May-2004, which has 13 numbered items. Commentary was received from:, Arval Benicoeur, Istvan, Brunissende de Brocelande, Knute, Ariel de Narbonne, Ailis McIntosh, Kolosvari Arpadne Julia, and Cateline la souriete. (Sorry if I mangled anybody's name there)

Good luck, and thanks again for all the hard work you all do!

In service,

Istvan Eastern Crown

1 Aderyn Vachan (F) - new name returned

No major changes. 'Aderyn' is Welsh for 'bird', as is shown in a Welsh lexicon at http://oldweb.cs.cf.ac.uk/fun/welsh/LexiconForms.html (PCA), and also at the Department of Welsh page at the University of Wales ( http://www.geiriadur.net/atebion.php?prefLang=en , PCA). Several articles are quoted to support the use of a name meaning 'bird' in the local language in Jewish names. Zipporah, or Tsipporah, appears in the Bible and means 'bird' according to Strong's Hebrew Dictionary ( http://www.sacrednamebible.com/kjvstrongs/STRHEB68.htm , PCA) and the Bible Dictionary ( http://www.biblelearn.com/east3944.htm , PCA). 'Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England' by Eleazar ha-Levi ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jewish.html ) has the following to say about Jewish naming conventions for women: More common, however, were vernacular names: flowers (Fleur de liz, Fleur, Rose); things of value (Almonda, Chera (Greek: Iekara, precious stone), Licoricia); desirable traits: (Bona (good), Belia (pretty), Genta (gentle)), or terms of endearment (Columbia (dove), Comitessa (countess), Pucella (little girl); or simply the names their neighbors used (Elfid, Auntera, Margaret, Sweetecote). 'Jewish Women's Names in an Arab Context: Names from the Geniza of Cairo' by Juliana de Luna ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/geniza.html ) says the following: The names are mostly Arabic, even though most were rendered in Hebrew letters. This reflects the broader trend in the Middle Ages: Jewish women generally used names typical of the culture in which they lived...Many names are derived from everyday Arabic words, whose meanings were probably relatively transparent to the namers. Many refer to a desirable trait or to the preciousness of a child. This article gives names with meanings such as 'cheetah', 'lioness', and 'lady gazelle'. In both these cases, Jews formed names in the local language, and used everyday words. 'Aderyn' follows this pattern for Welsh. 'Vachan' is a descriptive byname found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's 'A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh13.html , PCA). Eleazar ha-Levi's 'Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jewish.html ) says that the Talmud says to use a descriptive byname if there is more than one person with a particular given name. It also says to save time, one may shorten the name to just the given name and descriptor, without the patronymics. This is what we've done here.

This name has two surnames, both descriptive bynames, and no given name, and must be returned. The argument about given names in the articles cited which says given names were chosen after desirable traits is moot, since the article is talking nearly entirely about Arabic names and the submission is Welsh. The article does not address any Jewish names from Wales at all, and naming conventions differ very strongly between Arabic and Welsh cultures. If there were any Jews in Wales in period (which does not appear to be the case), their naming customs have not been preserved anywhere we could find them. If we follow the guideline that Jews used given names from the local culture, none of them would have been named Aderyn. It is listed in CA #66 as a descriptive byname, and choosing historical bynames as given names is a post-period practice.

2 Anastasia de Arundel (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Azure, a pegasus segreant argent manacled with broken chains sable within a bordure embattled Or.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, submitter wishes to retain a Norman English name from the 12th-13th century. 'Anastasia' dated in that spelling to 1219, 1220 in Withycombe p. 22 s.n. 'Anastasia'. 'de Arundel': 'Edmund de Arundel' (1301-1326) mentioned in Fox-Davies' 'Complete Guide to Heraldry'.

Since we don't know if Fox-Davies modernizes spellings, we checked other sources. We find 'de Arundel' dated in that spelling to 1178, 1198, 1204, and 1225 in Reaney & Wilson p. 15 s.n. 'Arundale'. The submitter may wish to be aware that there is a historical 'Anne Arundel', for whom a county in Maryland is named.

We were going to return the armory if anyone addressed the fact that they are only one CD from the fictional arms of Valdemar, from the Mercedes Lackey books: Azure, a winged horse rampant argent manacled with broken chains sable. Even with our mention in the LoI, nobody commented on it. The submitter should be aware that this likely will not be the case in the CoA and the armory will nearly certainly be returned, but it's getting sent to Laurel anyway.

3 Christopher Calhoune - resub device forwarded.

Or, three fleurs-de-lys gules.

Name accepted on the East's November 2003 LoI, which has not yet been sent to Laurel.

4 Deykin Crouthur (M) - new name forwarded

No major changes. Both elements found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's 'A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/welsh13.html ). Deykin is a form of David, and Crouthur is an occupational surname meaning 'Crwth-player'.

5 Gerard le Vert (M) - new name returned & new device returned

Ermine, on a pale vert three swords inverted proper.

No major changes. 'Gerard' dated in that spelling to the 13th century in Arval Benicoeur's 'French Names from Two Thirteenth Century Chronicles' ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/crusades/crusadesHommes.html , PCA). 'le' is French for 'the'. 'Vert' found, undated, in Dauzat's 'Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms et Prenoms de France' s.n. 'vert'. 'le Brun' is given as a descriptive surname in Arval's source given above, meaning 'the brown'.

Unfortunately, there is conflict with the registered name Gerald de Verre (October 1979, via the East). There's only a tiny bit of difference in each name element: a single letter or a drawing out of the sound.

Lacking a name, the armory also must be returned. The submitter should, however, be aware that it is very close to Armand Baird (September 1988, via the Middle): Lozengy vert and Or, on a pale vert, in pale a harp Or and a sword argent. There is one CD for the field, and one CD for the multiple changes to the tertiaries. The color and type of half the group has changed, as has the number. It is clear, but it still looks close enough that one commenter cited this as a conflict. The submitter may wish to consider a change on re-submission.

6 Idonea Fairamay (F) - new name forwarded

No changes. 'Idonea' is a header form in Withycombe, dated in that spelling to 1201-1218, 1284, 1303 and 1346. 'Fairamay' dated to 1327 in Reaney & Wilson, p. 160 s.n. 'Fairbody'.

7 Mary of the Stuwes (F) - new name forwarded

No major changes. Submitter wishes a name meaning 'prostitute' and authentic for 15th-16th century England. 'Mary' dated to 1390 in Julian Goodwyn's 'Brass Enscription Index' ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ). 'of the Stuwes' appears as a name in 'Piers Plowman' by William Langland, dated to roughly 1367-1377, in the prologue: 'Jakke the Jogelour and Jonette of the Stuwes/And Danyel the Dees-pleyere and Denote the Baude...'

If she wants to be a prostitute, she can be a prostitute. We're not sure if this is the proper form. Arval notes a name that explicitly means 'prostitute': 'le Harlot' - found in 1292. Cateline and Julia note 'Joyelavedy' and others. The OED, however, confirms that 'stews' had the desired meaning until well after period. The submitter has affirmed her desire to retain the submitted name rather than the alternatives.

8 Nanesh Ivanovich - new device forwarded

Gules, on a chevron between three wolves rampant to sinister argent two swords sable.

Device pended at kingdom when his original name, Nanesh Carraco, was returned on the East's January 2000 LoR. We forgot to send his device to Laurel when his current name was accepted in October 2001.

9 Owlsherst, Shire of - new group name forwarded & new device forwarded

Per bend sinister argent and vert, two owls close affronty within a laurel wreath all counterchanged.

No major changes. Group wishes a name which sounds like 'Owl's Reste'. 'Owls-' found as a protheme in several names in Watts' 'The Cambridge Encyclopedia of English Place-Names' : 'Owlbarrow' 1545, 'Owlburrow' 1622, 'Owlston' 1572, 'Owlton' 1570, 1598, 'Owlswicke' 1617. In several of these names, the 'Owl-' element derives from the given name Ulf. '-herst': '-herste', '-hurst' found as deuterothemes in several names in Ekwall: 'Lamburherste' c1100, 1205 s.n. 'Lamberhurst', 'Witenherste' 1195, 'Whitenherste' 1197, 'Hwitehurste' 1220, s.n. 'Wheatenhurst'. We believe that this spelling is an acceptable variant, given the dated spellings. Construction 'given name's hurst' also found in Ekwall s.n. 'Wheatenhurst', which is glossed as 'Hwita's hyrst'.

10 Owlsherst, Shire of - new badge forwarded

(Fieldless) An owls' head cabossed vert.

11 Seamus mac Duibne - resub device forwarded

Azure, a cross nowy argent within a bordure compony sable and Or.

His original device, 'Azure, a saltire argent, overall an orle Or all within a bordure gyronny of sixteen Or and sable.', returned on the East's January 2004 LoR: As drawn, it shows the arms of Scotland on an escutcheon at fess point. This is not allowable as per RfS XI.4. Also, from the Precedents of Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane: The device was blazoned with a double tressure, but the emblazon showed a bordure gules charged with an orle sable, which would not be licit. (LoAR 28 Jun 87, p. 4) As such, this device must be returned. His name was accepted on the same letter, which has not yet gone to Laurel.

Precedent says:

Elizabeth de Foxle. Name and device. Azure, on a cross nowy Or a cinquefoil gules. ...This does not conflict with the flag of Sweden (important non-SCA armory), Azure a cross Or. There is one CD between a cross throughout and a cross nowy. There is a second CD for adding the tertiary charge. LoAR 07/03 A-Lachoc

Therefore, this is clear of Greece (December 1994, via Laurel) Azure, a cross argent, with one CD for the nowing and one for the bordure.

12 Sebastian Estevan de Xavier (M) - new name forwarded & new device returned

Per chevron gules and argent, two fetterlocks linked by a chain argent and a lymphad sable.

No major changes. 'Sebastien' found in both Juliana de Luna's 'Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century' ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/ , PCA) and Elsbeth Anne Roth's '16th Century Spanish Names' ( http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~kvs/heraldry/spanish16/ , PCA), though neither has this spelling. Most of the dated spellings are 'Sebastian', though Juliana's article also dates 'Sabastian' and 'Savastian'. 'Estevan' is a patronymic, found in Juliana de Luna's 'Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century' ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/ , PCA). Unmarked patronymics were used: she cites the name 'Miguel Estevan'. According to the article 'Concerning the Names Xavier, Javier, and the Like' by Lyle FitzWilliam and Arval Benicoeur ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/problem/names/xavier.shtml , PCA) the name 'Xavier' or 'Javier' was originally a place name in Navarre, used as a locative surname by the saint Francisco Javier among others (Brittanica Online, also De Atienza, Juan, Nobilario Españl (Madrid: Aguilar SA, 1954).). Both 'Javier' and 'Xavier' are acceptable spellings, as the 'J' and 'X' were interchangable. The name pattern [given name] [patronymic] de [locative] is cited in Elsbeth Anne Roth's '16th Century Spanish Names' ( http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~kvs/heraldry/spanish16/ , PCA).

Submitted as 'Sebastien', this was a transcription error from the documentation to the form, according to the consulting herald.

Most of these articles are also available on the Laurel web page, and citing them thus could have saved the submitting herald time, postage and quite a bit of copy paper: Juliana's article is at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella/index.html and Elsbeth's is at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/spanish/index.html. Please, please check to see if the articles you are citing are on the Laurel web page!

Unfortunately, we must consider this precedent:

registering ...a falcon close contourny and a lion rampant Or maintaining between them a sword argent... Note: this is not "slot machine" since the sword is maintained and not sustained. (Béibhinn Ní Dhonnamháin, 1/99)

This means that, in the current case, the grouping in chief is considered two separate charge types (fetterlocks and chain) , not a single aggregate type (chained fetterlocks). Since there is a third type in the same charge group (the lymphad), this is considered what's known as 'slot machine', in violation of RFS VIII.1.a., which states "three or more types of charges should not be used in the same group."

In any case, charges should be drawn larger so they fill the space better than they do in this submission. Remember that armory was about identifiability from a distance. Charges should be as big as possible while still allowing the field to be seen around them.

13 Ysabella de Draguignan (F) - new name forwarded & new device forwarded

Azure, a peacock in its pride argent marked azure and in chief three fleurs-de-lys argent.

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she wishes to retain an unspecified language/culture and meaning. 'Ysabella' dated in that spelling to 1207, 1275, 1279, 1283-84 in Talan Gwynek's 'Feminine Given Names in a Dictionare of English Surnames ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html ). 'du Draguignan': Draguignan is a header spelling in Dauzat and Rostaing's 'Dictionnaire des Noms de Lieux de France' p. 253, listed as a surname, with 'Dragoniano' dated to 909.

Submitted as 'Ysabella du Draguignan', we have changed from the French article 'of the' to the article for 'of', which is proper for a locative.

The French/Occitan/Provencal form of the name appears to be "Ysabel", as found in An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris, by Lord Colm Dubh ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ). The form in Provencal is also Ysabel, according to Late Period Feminine Names from the South of France ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/latefrenchfem/ ) The name as submitted, however, is perfectly legal.