Kolosvari Arpadne Julia

Sunday, September 2nd, 2007

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Kolosvari Arpadne Julia, Eastern Crown Herald!

This is the Letter of Decisions for the Internal Letter of Intent dated July 17, 2007. It contains submissions received by July 9th, 2007 and has 20 numbered items.

Many thanks to the following commenters, without whom I wouldn't know which end is up: Tatiana Danilova, Aryanhwy merch Catmael, Alys Mackyntoich, Tanzos Istvan, Gawain of Miskbridge, and Eleazar ha-Levi.

As usual, text in boldface is quoted from the ILoI, and my comments follow in normal type.

1 Conogan mab Rioc (m) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Azure, a tower Or and a chief wavy erminois.

No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about 'Breton, 11th century' language and/or culture. Conogan is a saint with a feast day on Oct. 16 according to http://catholique-quimper.cef.fr/decouvrez_notre_patrimoine/bol-d-air-breton/saint-conogan/. The submitter translates a portion of this page as follows: "Departing from Wales, and probably a party of the group of companions of Saint Pol, Conogan established his monastery not far from Landerneau, on the banks of the Elorn, at Beuzit-Conogan. Tradition tells us that he went to the school of Saint Gwenole, and it's through Landevennec that his cult was propagated. He lived at the time of Childebert (in the first half of the 6th century)." 'mab' is asserted to be the early Breton patronymic particle. The use of patronymics by 11th century Bretons is documented from http://bzh.hosting.enter-net.com/histoire/reinea.htm: "a certain Alan Fitz Alan, seneschal of Dol, left the country to accompany William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, to England" (submitter's translation). Rioc is from http://www-sca-org/heraldry/laurel/names/EarlyMedievalBreton.html (no author or title provided), which says: "Riocus (M10) 11th c. - A Latinized form, presumably of Rioc."

The dictionary of saints maintained by St. Patrick's in Washington, DC (http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/1016.htm) confirms that Conogan is a 5th century saint still venerated in Brittany; the entry says "Conogan is one spelling of 'Gwen,' which means 'white,' and so in turn is translated into the Latin 'Albinus.'" The article cited for Rioc (which is Tangwystyl's "Early Medieval Breton Names") lists only Latinized names, offering support for filius Rioci as the patronymic byname. However, this would change the language of an element in the name; this is a major change, which the submitter does not allow. The modern Breton word for "son" is mab, according to Webster's online Breton-English ditionary (http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/translation/Breton/mab); and An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language by Alexander MacBain (http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/index.html) includes "Breton map, mab" in its list of cognates/related words under "mac". The latter at least implies that the medieval Breton for "son" was something similar to mab, so I've left the particle unchanged: hopefully, the greater expertise of the CoA will be able to provide the appropriate word.

This device is clear of Gabrielle de Carcassonne (Aug. 1998 Atlantia), Azure, a castle triple-towered, on a chief wavy Or three fleurs-de-lys azure, with one CD for the tincture of the chief and another for removing the tertiary charges.

2 Duncan Kieran - New Badge returned

(Fieldless) A rabbit's head erased affronty attired of stag's antlers argent.

His name and device (Quarterly vert and Or, in bend two rabbits rampant guardant, attired of stag's antlers, argent) were registered in Jul. 1992, via the East.

There is a precedent (Sean Donald of Caithness, 02/1998 R-Atenveldt) saying that there is no difference for adding antlers to a bear. If it applies here, then this badge conflicts with Eógan Mac Ailpein (July 1999 Atlantia), (Fieldless) A hare's head cabossed argent, with just one CD from the fieldless bribe. It may be argued that adding antlers to an animal's head is a different degree of change than antlering the whole beast. However, there is another precedent addressing crowned animal's heads (12/2002 Cover Letter), which concludes that there is no clear difference between a crowned vs. uncrowned animal's head. I believe this case is analogous, especially given the current depiction, in which the jackalo..., I mean, rabbit's ears are much more prominent than the antlers. This must therefore be returned for conflict with Eógan's badge.

3 Engraçia de Madrigal (f) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Paly azure and argent, a dance vert.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about Spanish language. Engraçia is found in "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" by Juliana de Luna (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/isabella/index.html) in the section on female given names. de Madrigal appears in the same article as a locative byname.

This device is clear of Marcus Redwolf (Jan. 1997 An Tir), Or, a dance vert between three wolves' heads cabossed gules, with one CD for the field tincture and another for removing the secondary charges. It's also clear of Estrill Swet (Mar. 2006 Ansteorra), Paly purpure and argent, a dance counter-ermine, with one CD for the field, and another for the primary charge tincture.

4 Éogan mac Domnaill (m) - New Name forwarded

If his name must be changed, he cares most about language and/or culture. He requests authenticity for 10-12th century Scottish language and/or culture. Éogan has a frequency count of 87 in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/irish100.html). Sharon Krossa's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 12th Century Scottish Gaelic Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/simplescotgaelicnames12.shtml) lists Domnall (genitive Domnaill), as well as 'mac' as the standard form of Scottish patronymic particle.

The submitted spelling of the patronymic, Donaill, is missing an 'm': the genitive (possessive) spelling, appropriate for use in a patronymic byname, is Domnaill for roughly pre-1200, and Domhnaill after about 1200. (See Tangwystyl's cited article, and/or the Annals Index under Domnall, and/or Academy of St. Gabriel reports 3029 and 3233.) The patronymic has therefore been corrected to the earlier form, which is closer to the submitted spelling.

5 Eoin an Doire - New Device returned

Per saltire Or and azure, an oak tree couped proper, blasted sinister.

His name was forwarded to Laurel on the Feb. 2007 xLoI, which was decided at the June meetings. The decisions are (naturally) not published yet.

Precedent says that "trees which are half blasted and half not blasted are stylistically unacceptable" (Meadhbh MacNeill, 12/2002 R-Atenveldt), so this must be returned. Even without the style problem, this would have to be returned, for conflict with O'Connor Don (Dec. 1994 via Laurel), Argent, a tree eradicated vert, with just one CD for the field: there is no difference for blasted vs. not (Kenric of Rohan, 03/2002 R-Meridies), none for couped vs. eradicated (William Flanagan, 02/2000 R-Atenveldt), and none for proper vs. vert (Karl von Lindenheim, 05/2003 R-Atlantia).

6 Gabriella von Ulm (f) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Ermine, a horse rampant sable and a bordure azure.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the spelling of Gabriella. Gabriella is dated to 1427 in Pisa and Pistoia according to Academy of St. Gabriel report 3225 (http://www.s-gabrielorg/3225), based either directly on the Online Catasto, or on Arval Benicoeur's "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427". Ulm is a city in southwestern Germany. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, it was first mentioned in 854 and was chartered in the 12th century. The city played a leading role in the wars of the 14th and 15th centuries, "becoming a free imperial city with extensive territorial authority". The byname von Ulme is found in Aryanhwy's "German Names from Rottweil, Baden-Wurttemberg, 1441" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/rottweilsur.html). The submitter prefers the normalized spelling "von Ulm". A combination of Italian and German is considered one step from period practice, but registerable (Richenza d'Assisi, 07/01 A-Lochac).

A clarification of the summary of S. Gabriel report 3225: Arval's Catasto article does not list Gabriella, so the correct reference is David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber: "Census and property survey of Florentine domains and the city of Verona in fifteenth century Italy" (machine-readable data file, reformatted by Robert Darcy; Madison, Wisconsin: Data and Program Library Service [distributor], 1981 and 1996).

7 Griffith Davion (m) - New Name forwarded

No major changes. Griffith is found in Talan Gwynek's "Late Sixteenth Century English Given Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng16/eng16alpha.html) and Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Names in Chesham, 1538-1600/1" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/chesham/chesham-masculine.html). Davion is a Dutch surname found in "Names from Antwerp, 1443-1550" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael and Kymma Godric (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/dutch/surnamesplaiser.html). A combination of English and Dutch is considered one step from period practice, but registerable (Toen Fitzwilliam, 02/02 A-Calontir). The same is true for English and Flemish (Rosalind Ryne, 04/04 A-Lochac).

8 Jehane de Fenwyk (f) - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Azure, three enfields rampant Or.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about the spelling. Jehane is found in "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" by Colm Dubh (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html), specifically in the feminine name Jehane la cousturiere. de Fenwyk is a spelling dated to 1279 in R&W p. 166 s.n. Fenwick. Combinations of French and English are not considered a deviation from period practice (Engelbert the Pious, 12/03 A-Middle). A letter is included attesting that Noah de Fenwyk (whose name and device submissions appear elsewhere in this letter) is her son, and giving him permission to conflict with her device.

The most recent precedent is that there is no CD between an enfield and a canine (Anacletus McTerlach, 07/2004 R-Meridies). Unfortunately, this device therefore conflicts with Ana Moonstar (Aug. 1979), Azure, a wolf rampant reguardant Or, maintaining in its teeth a mullet of eight points argent, standing upon a moon in her plentitude per pale argent and sable, with one CD for the number of primary charges, but nothing for wolf vs. enfield and nothing for the maintained charges. (The Armorial notes that the moon in Ana's arms is a maintained charge.)

9 Joshua ben Simeon (m) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Or, three kraken gules.

If his name must be changed, he cares most about the meaning 'Joshua, son of Simon; English Jew'. All elements and form - "Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England" by Eleazar ha-Levi (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jewish.html).

To expand on the somewhat cryptic documentation summary on the submission form: Joshua is listed as a variant of Jehosua, and Simeon is a header name in Eleazar's cited article. The same article gives "Joseph ben (son of) Simon" as an example of the simplest type of name construction.

This device is clear of Ariya Arkadova (Aug. 1992 Atenveldt), Vairy Or and sable, a kraken gules, with one CD for the field tincture, and another for the number of kraken.

10 Lorenzo Gorla (m) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Azure, a fess bretessed argent between six covered cups Or.

If his name must be changed, he cares most about Italian language. Lorenzo appears in "Fifteenth Century Venetian Masculine Names" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/venicegivalpha.html) as well as her "Italian Given Names from the Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/florence1282-1532.html). Gorla is a header in de Felice's Cognomi, undated. It's apparentely identified as a toponymic: "Cognome lombardo, frequenta a Milano, formato dai toponimi Gorla, ora inglobato in Milano, Gorla Maggiore e Gorla Minor, e Gorle (BG), e dall'etnico Gorlino."

11 Molly inghean ui Raighallaigh (f) - New Change of Holding Name forwarded & New Badge forwarded
Current name: Molly of Iron Bog

(Fieldless) A thimble per pale argent and sable.

Her holding name and device, Per pale argent and sable, a ferret and a coney combattant guardant and in chief three thimbles counterchanged, were registered in Apr. 2006, via the East. Her originally submitted name, Molly O'Raighallaigh, was returned at that same time for conflict with Màiri ni Raghallaigh (Apr. 1990 East). The return said, in part: "Had the name not had a conflict, we would have registered it as either Molly O'Riellie or Molly inghean ui Raighallaigh. Note that the second form combines English and Gaelic; this is one step from period practice." This submission uses the second (non-authentic but registerable) form, and includes a letter of permission to conflict from Màiri ni Raghallaigh.

12 Moriath of Kildare (f) - New Name returned & New Device returned

Or vetu, a duck purpure.

If her name must be changed, she cares most about Irish language and/or culture. Moriath is found in the entry for Labraid Longseach, as the name of the daughter of Scoriath the King, in Ellis, P.B.: A Dictionary of Irish Mythology (Constable, London 1987). According to Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_County_Kildare), County Kildare was first defined as a diocese in 1111, shired in 1297 and assumed its present borders in 1832.

Moriath appears to be a legendary figure from The Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places (found in translation on the CELT archive: http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T106500B/text004.html), which is an anthology of poems setting out the legendary basis for several Irish placenames. Per precedent, names documented only as legendary characters are not registerable (see for example Cassair Warwick, 02/2002 R-Atlantia; Ciarnait inghean Dhonngaile, 03/2003 R-An Tir; Dáirine ingen Chiaragain, 06/2002 R-Atlantia; etc.). A suggestion offered in commentary was to change the given name to Mariota, which is found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/lateirish/ormond-given.html#Given). However, I feel this is too drastic a change to make without the submitter's input, so I'm returning the name for further work. For a discussion of using Kildare in an authentic Irish name, see the June 2006 LoAR under Moira of Kildare (A-East).

Vetu is a field division, not a charge, so this picture is Or vetu (purpure), a duck purpure, not Purpure, on a vetu Or a duck purpure as originally blazoned. For conflict checking purposes, vetu is considered equivalent to a lozenge throughout, which unfortunately means that this conflicts with Caterina Nadalini (Nov. 2001 Ansteorra), Purpure, on a lozenge ployé Or a bunch of grapes proper: per precedent, "There is no difference between a lozenge and a lozenge ployé, nor is there difference between a lozenge and a lozenge throughout" (Isabel Margarita de Sotomayor y Pérez de Gerena, 11/2002 R-Trimaris), so there's just the one CD for the change in type of tertiary charge (RfS X.4.j.ii.).

13 Noe de Fenwyk (m) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Azure, three enfields rampant and a bordure Or.

Noah is found in "Given Names from Early 13th Century England" by Talan Gwynek (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng13/eng13m.html) as the header form for the documented spelling Noes. The submitter requests the normalized/modern spelling. de Fenwyk is a spelling dated to 1279 in R&W p. 166 s.n. Fenwick. A letter is included from Jehanne de Fenwyk (whose name and device submissions appear elsewhere on this letter) attesting that Noah is her son, and giving him permission to conflict with her submitted armory, Azure, three enfields rampant Or.

Modern forms of names are only registerable if there is reason to believe that they came into use before the 17th century. The earliest use of the form Noah that commenters found was from 1660 (in Bardsley's Curiosities of Puritan Nomenclature), which is a decade past even the "gray area" and is hence too late for our purposes. Period English forms of the name normally have an 'e' as the second vowel and often end in 's': Noe c. 1125, 1185; Noysse 1327 (R&W s.n. Noy), and the cited Noes, from a document recorded sometime between c. 1230 and c. 1247. Noe is also found in Talan's "Late Sixteenth Century English Given Names" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng16/eng16.html). This is probably the most similar to the modern form of the name, at least in sound, so I've changed the submitted Noah to Noe.

This device is clear of William Scott of Blackwater (Sep. 2004 Meridies), Azure, an enfield rampant Or and a bordure ermine, with one CD for the number of enfields and another for the change in tincture of the bordure. It's also clear of Ana Moonstar (Aug. 1979), Azure, a wolf rampant reguardant Or, maintaining in its teeth a mullet of eight points argent, standing upon a moon in her plentitude per pale argent and sable, with one CD for the number of primary charges and another for adding the bordure.

14 Norcastel, Shire of - New Device forwarded

Azure estencelly argent, a tower Or standing atop a base argent charged with a laurel wreath azure.

The branch's name was registered in Oct. 2006, via the East. A valid petition showing the group's support for these arms is included.

15 Rufus Bowie (m) - New Name Change forwarded
Current name: George Bowie

No major changes. His current name was registered in May 1998 via Atlantia. It is to be released if this registration is successful. If his name must be changed, he cares most about sound. Rufus is found in Bardsley, p. 243 s.n. Dingley: Rufus Rogers 1598-9. It's also an undated header in Withycombe. The April 1990 LoAR says, in the registration of Rufus Barbarossa (A-Atlantia): "As Rufus of Capua was honoured as a martyr in the Sarum calendar and several fifteenth-century monastic calendars, the name would seem to be acceptable as a given name (Oxford Dictionary of Saints, p. 349)." This same information is repeated in Feb. 1994 for Rufus of Stamford (A-Middle). Bowie is grandfathered to the submitter.

16 Síle Bowie (f) - New Name Change forwarded
Current name: Síle nic Chárthaigh

No major changes. Her current name was registered in May 1998 via Atlantia. It is to be released if this registration is successful. If her name must be changed, she cares most about meaning; she would like to change nic Chárthaigh to Bowie to reflect her husband's SCAdian last name. Síle is from OCM p. 165. It's grandfathered to the submitter. Bowie is found as Boye alias Bowy alias Boee 1481, from Gaelic buidhe 'fair-haired', according to R&W p. 57 s.n. Bowie.

For the surname, Black p. 92 s.n. Bowie adds Bowey 1489, Bowy c. 1523, Bowye 1570, Bowie or Bowy 1585-89, and Bowie 1591 and 1606. Síle is Irish Gaelic, found as the name of 12 women between 1471 and 1589 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sile.shtml). Combining Gaelic with English, Scots, or Anglicized Irish is considered a step from period practice, but registerable (Ian MacHenrik, 10/1999 A-An Tir; Elspeth O'Shea, 02/2000 A-Middle; and Banbnat MacDermot, 09/2001 A-Calontir). [If the submitter is interested in a fully English name, she might consider Sela, which is dated to 1219 in R&W under Sealey. She should also be aware that the practice of women changing their surnames on marriage is far from universal in the SCA's period. In particular, Gaelic bynames were used literally throughout period: a fair-haired man might have been called buidhe, but not his wife (unless she was blond, too).]

17 Siobhán inghean Eoin (f) - Resub Name forwarded

Her previous name submission of Brighid mac Seáin was returned on the Nov. 2006 LoD for grammar problems. This is a completely different name. If her name must be changed, she cares most about 16th c. Irish Gaelic language and/or culture. Siobhán is given as the expected post-1200 spelling of a feminine name dated between 1310 and 1600 as the name of 22 women in "Index of Names in Irish Annals" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/). Eoin is given as both the nominative and genitive post-1200 spelling of a name dated between 1246 and 1600 as the name of 58 men in the same article. "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (3rd ed.) by Sharon Krossa (http://www.medeivalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/) says 'inghean' is the expected patronymic particle for Early Modern Irish Gaelic (i.e., post-1200), and indicates that names starting with a vowel do not need to be lenited. Per the April 2002 Cover Letter, this name does not conflict with Siobhan nic Eoin (Apr. 1994 Meridies). The specific examples mention that inghean does not conflict in sound or appearance with inghean mhic (which can be pronounced 'nic') or mac. Inghean and nic are in different languages, and they express different relationships besides, so all the guidelines on the CL concur that these names do not conflict.

18 William O Donovan (m) - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Gules, three frets couped Or.

The submitter desires the Anglicized Irish name William O Donovan. If it is determined that this name conflicts with Major General William J. "Wild Bill" Donovan (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9030939/William-J-Donovan), then the submitter will accept the alternative William O Donovan of Monmouth. "Fourteenth to Sixteenth Century Irish Names and Naming Practices" by Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/lateirish/index.html) shows that 'William' was fairly common in Ireland by the 14th century. The actual cites from the Red Book of Ormond are in Latin (Willelmus and grammatical variants), but the 16th century Fitzwilliam Accounts (discussed in the same article) document the surnames Fitzwilliams and McWilliam, showing that the vernacular form can likely be represented with the same spelling as used in English contexts. Said spelling is of course William, which is dated to 1323 in Julian Goodwyn's "English Names Found in Brass Enscriptions" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/). (O) Donovan is an undated header in MacLysaght (p. 86), and Donovan is an undated header in R&W (p. 328); both works identify it as Gaelic Ó Donnabháin. OCM p. 77 s.n. Donndubán says that this given name occurred principally in Munster during the 9th and 10th centuries, and gave rise to the modern surname Ó Donnabháin. Monmouth is a town in south Wales, first granted a royal charter in 1256 (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9053382/Monmouth). The name and spelling Monmouth is dated to 1267 in "Mapping Medieval Wales: Wales at the Time of the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267" by John Garnons Williams (http://www.gwp.enta.net/waalhist.html). This is the English name of the town -- Welsh names for the same place included Trefynwy, Aper Mynuy (c. 1150) and Munwi Mutha (11th c.).

The March 2005 acceptance of Donovan Talbot (via Meridies) says "John O'Donovan, Annals of Ireland, by the Four Masters, vol. 6, p. 2446, contains a transcription of the will of 'Mr. Deniell O'Donovane', dated August 14, 1629. This is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that Donovan is consistent with period anglicizations of this name."

This device is clear of Rhiannon ferch Cian (Apr. 2006 Ansteorra), Gules fretty, a base Or: a single fret would be equivalent to fretty, but three frets couped is not, so that's one clear difference, and there's another for removing the base. It's also clear of Gyles de Blair (Aug. 2004 Æthelmearc), Gules, three frets couped argent and a chief Or, with one CD for the tincture of the frets, and another for the removal of the chief.

19 Wir Coleshulle - New Device forwarded

Azure, a beacon between flaunches argent, each charged with two escallops inverted azure.

Her name was registered in Oct. 2004, via the East.

Flaunches only ever appear in pairs, so the redundant "two flaunches" has been changed to just "flaunches".

20 Ysabeau de Lorigne - New Device returned

Quarterly gules and sable, a gryphon and a bordure Or.

Her name was registered in Feb. 2005, via the East.

The field was misblazoned on the ILoI and submission form: this is Quarterly gules and sable, not sable and gules. Unfortunately, this correction makes no real difference, as this device conflicts with Isabella de la Griffon d'Aquitaine (Feb. 1998 Trimaris), Quarterly vert and gules, a griffin segreant, a bordure Or, with just one clear difference from the changed field tinctures. On resubmission, the submitter should keep the following "close calls" in mind: Degary Golafre of Pembroke (Jul. 2000 Middle), Quarterly sable and gules, a griffin segreant coward maintaining in its dexter talon a Celtic cross and in its sinister talon a sword inverted Or (one CD for reversing the field tinctures, and another for the bordure), and Brion Anthony Uriel Tarragon (Nov. 2000 East), Azure, a griffin segreant Or within a bordure Or goutty de sang (one for the field, one for removing the gouttes). Also, please draw the bordure somewhat wider; about twice as thick should do it. Finally, a blazon tweak: four-legged winged beasts such as griffins are segreant, which is "rampant, wings addorsed", by default; rampant and segreant are considered equivalent postures for such creatures.


Bardsley, Charles Wareing. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames. Oxford University Press, London, 1901.

Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland. The New York Public Library, 1946.

De Felice, Emidio. Dizionario dei cognomi Italiani. Mondadori, Milan, 1992.

MacLysaght, Edward. The Surnames of Ireland. Sixth edition. Irish Academic Press, Dublin, 1991.

Ó Corraín, Donnchadh and Fidelma Maguire. Irish Names. Lilliput Press, Dublin, 1990.

Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Third edition, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Withycombe, E.G. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Third edition. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979.