Lillia de Vaux

March 10, 2010

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do read this letter, greetings from Lillia de Vaux, Eastern Crown Herald!

This is the Letter of Decisions for the Internal Letter of Intent dated December 31, 2009. There are 34 numbered items. Text in boldface is quoted or summarized from the ILoI, and my comments follow in normal type. Armory was reblazoned as needed, sometimes without further comment. Unless noted, no conflicts were found.

Thank you to the following commenters: Joscelin l'Esqurel, Alys Mackyntoich, Aceline Barrett, Yosef Alaric, Amy verch Rychard, Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Gawain of Miskbridge, Rohese de Dinan, Pipa Sparkes, Thomas of Shrewsbury, Kolosvari Arpadne Julia, Brunissende Dragonette, and Eleazar ha-Levi.

1: Alesone Gray of Cranlegh - New Device Change forwarded

Quarterly gules and sable, on a bend sinister argent three fleurs-de-lys gules

Old Item: Gules, three equal-armed Celtic crosses and on a chief argent three ravens sable, to be retained.

Alesone's name was registered in 10/2009, and her previous device, Gules, three equal-armed Celtic crosses and on a chief argent three ravens sable, was registered under a holding name in 12/2008, both via the East. She has two badges that were registered in 10/2009 and 11/2009, and a third badge was on the 09/25/2009 East Kingdom External Letter of Intent. If all are registered, this would be her fifth piece of armory, which is still under the limit of six.

Commenters noted that the bend should be a little wider, but no one felt that it was returnable for that. The device is clear of Guillaine Rosalind de Gaulle (Oct. 2008, An Tir), Per pale sable and gules, on a bend sinister doubly cotised argent a fleur-de-lys palewise per pale gules and sable between a fleur-de-lys palewise gules and a fleur-de-lys palewise sable. There is one CD for the differences in the field, one for the changes in tincture and orientation of the tertiaries, and one for the addition of cotises. It is clear of Helene Noel de Montbeliart (Oct. 2005, Calontir), Gules ermined argent, on a bend sinister argent three holly sprigs palewise vert fructed gules; Rhonda Lynn MacLeod (Nov. 1994, eridies), Gules semy-de-lys Or, on a bend sinister argent, a rose sable; and Lebanon (important non-SCA armory), Gules, on a bend sinister argent a cedar tree palewise proper, with one CD for the field and another for the changes to the tertiaries.

2: Alexander Clarke - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Azure, a stag's head caboshed and in chief three mullets Or

The submitter desires a male name. Language (English) most important. Culture (Late 15th century York, England) most important. Alexander is found four times in Karen Larsdotter, "An Index to the 1523 Subsidy Roll for York and Ainsty, England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york16/given-masc-alpha.htm): Alexander Kent, Alexander Leke, Alexander Watson, and Alexander Braine. Clarke is found in multiple parish records in Julie Kahan, "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/parish/surnames_c.html), dated 1541-1615.

The device is clear of Richard Stanley Greybeard, Azure, a stag's head cabossed and on a chief double enarched Or, three mullets of six points azure, with CDs for the changes in type and number of the secondary charges (a chief to three mullets), and another for removing the tertiaries.

3: Alice de Montbegon - New Name forwarded

The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Language/culture (English) most important. Alice is dated to 1273 in Withycombe, s.n. Alice. de Montbegon is the byname of Roger de Montbegon, one of the barons who acted as a surety or enforcer of the Magna Carta (1215), according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/93/93691.html). He was also involved in a lawsuit in 1209, as described in A History of the County of Lincoln, Vol. 2 (1906, p. 202, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=38041).

As the sources for the byname were from sources that modernize names, Elmet provided additional information:

The Lancashire Pipe Rolls for the reigns of Henry I - John (http://books.google.com/books?id=3nIDAAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s) includes <Rogero de Munbugun> in a roll c. 1186-7 (p. 64). At p. 134 <Rogero de Munbugun> appears again in a document c. 1200-1. The accompanying notes make it clear that Rogero de Munbugun is Roger de Montbegon.

A Calendar of the Lancashire Assize Rolls, Volume 49 (http://books.google.com/books?id=xfEMAAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s) refers to <Roger de Montebegon> c. 1224-5 (pp. 262-3), and to <Roger de Montbegon> in 1224-5 (pp. 255, 262, 272).

A Calendar of the Close Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office: 1313-1318 ( http://books.google.com/books?id=CnUfAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false), p. 286, refers to <Rogero de Monte Begon[is]> in a Latin document dated May 18, 1316.

The Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey of the Premonstratensian Order (http://books.google.com/books?id=hLA0AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false) at pp. 461-62 contains a document from <Rogerus de Montebegonis> confirming a gift, dated c. 1220-26.

Materials for the history of the church of Lancaster, Volume 26, by William Oliver Roper, Chetham Society (http://books.google.com/books?id=TLuJu_xS1mAC&source=gbs_navlinks_s) p. 20-21 gives an original Latin charter from <Rogerus de Monte Begonis>, which the next page translates into English as Roger de Montbegon.

A Description of the County of Westmoreland, Tract series, Issues 1-6, by Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (http://books.google.com/books?id=wakiAAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s), pp. 115-16 lists several instances of <Montbegon> during the reign of King John, although it's unclear whether the names have been modernized.

The visitation of Cheshire in the year 1580, edited by John Paul Rylands (http://books.google.com/books?id=Q_wUAAAAQAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s), p. 182, references a seal in Latin of <Rogerus de Monte Beg'on>

Based on the 1224-5 references to Roger de Montbegon in the Lancashire Assize Rolls, I am giving this submission the benefit of the doubt and forwarding the name unchanged.

4: Anne Gryffyth - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Vert, a griffin maintaining in its sinister claw a thistle argent

The submitter desires a female name. Both Anne and Gryffyth are found in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 16th Century Welsh Names (in English Contexts)" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh16.html).

The cited article also documents the pattern <given name> + <father's given name> for both men and women.

The device does not conflict with with Brandon D'Arindel, (Fieldless) A male griffin segreant argent (03/1983, West) or Sable, a male griffin rampant argent (03/1997). For both, there are CDs for the change to the field and for the difference between a keythong ('male griffin') and griffin [Jovan Greyhawk, 12/1992]. Unfortunately, the device conflicts with Griffin Val Drummond (12/2006, Atenveldt), Per pale purpure and azure, a griffin segreant argent, maintaining in its dexter talon a Morgenstern, and in its sinister talon a targe charged with a tower azure. There is but one CD for the field; maintained charges do not count for difference.

5: Ari haustmyrkr Þorbrandsson - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Argent, an eagle vert and on a chief azure two wolves statant respectant argent

The submitter desires a male name. Language (Norse) most important. Culture (Viking from Norway) most important. Meaning ('twilight') most important. All name elements are found in Geirr Bassi. Ari is a masculine name (p. 7, column 1), found eight times in the Landnámabók. haustmyrkr is a byname (p. 22, column 2) glossed as 'autumn (early) dusk' that is found once in the Landnámabók. Þorbrandsson is a patronymic formed from the masculine name Þorbrandr (p. 16, column 2) that is found 10 times in the Landnámabók. The instructions on the formation of patronymics (p. 17) indicate that the final -r becomes -s to form the genitive, giving Þorbrands + son = Þorbrandsson.

The device is clear of Friedrich Eric Helmut von Rheinhausen (02/1987, Middle), Argent, an eagle displayed vert, with CDs for the addition of the chief and for the addition of the tertiary charges.

6: Berric Grayveson - New Device returned

Per bend sinister bevilled counter-ermine and ermine, a dragon passant to sinister gules

His name and a badge, (Fieldless) An anchor gules, were registered in 09/2007 via the East.

Commenters were unanimous that the line of division was difficult to identify, and there was at least one step from period practice for the use of a charge with this field. The device was clear of Kragon of Land's End (07/2001, Outlands), Per bend sinister bevilled Or and gules, a sun counterchanged within a bordure sable, with one CD for the change to the field and another for the change in type of the primary charge. Unfortunately, it conflicts with Maythen Gervaise (04/1980, West), Per bend sinister sable and Or, a dragon counter-passant reguardant, wings addorsed, gules, with only one CD for the change to the field. It also conflicts with Myfanwy ferch Rhiannon (05/1985, East), Erminois, a dragon passant to sinister regardant gules, maintaining in dexter foreclaw a fountain, with a CD for the cumulative changes to the field, but nothing for the position of the dragon's head or for removing the maintained charge.

7: Black Icorndall, Canton of - New Branch Name Change forwarded

The name was submitted as Black Ickorndall, Canton of. Old Item: Gleann nam Feorag Dhuibhe, Canton of, to be released. Meaning ('Valley of the black squirrel') most important. The canton's current name was registered 11/2004 via the East. Black Ickorndall is a constructed English place name. Watts, s.n. Aconbury derives this place name from the Old English <acweorna> 'squirrel'. There is also the Old Norse <ikorni> 'squirrel', which is carried into the English names Ickenthwaite, Ickering Gill, Ickornshaw, and Icornhurst (these are modern spellings from Smith, s.v. ikorni). The above examples show the combination of a word for 'squirrel' with generic toponymics like <-thweit>, <-shaw>, and <-hurst>. Watts, s.n. Notley notes that it was called Black Notley, Magna Notley, or Great Notley to distinguish it from White Notley or Little Notley. There are also 13th century examples of prepending Blake (or the Old French Neir). Canton is one of the standard branch name designators found in Appendix B of the Administrative Handbook. A petition was included:

We, the undersigned - comprising three-quarters of the current officers of the Canton of Gleann nam Feorag Dhuibhe - do hereby petition to change the name of this Canton, located in the Barony of Bhakail. For reasons of internal and external ease of use, communication and memorization, we seek to change the name to the period form of Black Ickorndall - the valley of the black squirrel. This represents the same meaning while changing the source culture, resulting in something that can be more easily communicated to the mundane public and be more easily transcribed by members and non-members alike.

To this, we sign our hands to reflect this popular decision, as officers of the Canton.

(Signed by the Seneschal, Exchequer, and Mistress of Arts and Sciences)

The petition was inadvertently not dated; however, I had the Seneschal date the entire petition in my presence, and that of the Mistress of Arts and Sciences. As this was done with the consent of two of the signers of the petition, and in my presence, I ask that Laurel accept this as a valid petitiion, even if each signer did not individually date the petition.

Icornsawe, dated 1279 (Ekwall, s.n. Ickornshaw, p. 261), was glossed as 'squirrel wood', with the first element being from the Old Norse ikorni. Under the header Aconbury (ibid., p. 2), we have the examples Akornebir' (1213), Akornbury (1218), Akornbire (1233) and Okernebur' (1241), and s.n. Notley (p. 345), we have Black Nuteleye (1240). The Black affix is also discussed in Ekwall (s.nn. Callerton, Heddon on the Wall, Torrington, pp. 82, 231, 478), with the examples Blackalverdon (1242), Blakecalverdon (1256), Nigra Heddon, and Blaketorrintun.

The -dall ending was not documented by the submitter. According to Ekwall, dæl (the header) means 'valley'. He states that it's not a common word, but "must have been in use all over England to judge by isolated names such as Dalham...Dalwood...Dawley...Doverdale... Names in Dal- and -dale are most frequent in the old Scandinavian districts and mostly contain ON dalr, ODan, OSw dal 'valley'." Numerous place names formed with -dal or -dale are found in Ekwall and Mills, for example Kendal' (1190), Leversdal (c. 1225), and Leveresdale (1296) in Ekwall (s.nn. Kendal, Laversdale), and Ravenedal (1086), and Borgherdale (1247) in Mills (s.nn. Ravendale, Borrowdale). For the -dall ending we have Saxendall (1272) in Ekwall (s.n. Saxondale) and Alnerdall (11 Gospatric's ch) in Mills (s.n. Allerdale). Watts (s.nn. Doverdale, Arkendale, Deepdale, Swaledale, and Airedale; pp. 5, 17, 182, 193, 593) includes Dardall and Dordall (1558), Arkendall (1573), Depdal(l) (16th century), Swawdall and Swawdell (16th century), Airdall (1534), and Airedall (1340).

In order to better match the documented spelling of the 'squirrel' element, I have changed the name to Black Icorndall, Canton of. Mistress Scholastica noted, however, that the name does not have the intended meaning; rather, Black modifies the place name Icorndall--not just the 'icorn' part--so the name is closer in meaning to "valley of the squirrel with the black soil or black color to the water, or something along that line". She was not sure it was possible to support an English place name that follows the pattern color + animal + locative element, and thinks that this is as close as the submitter can get. In addition, the seneschal has indicated that the Canton will accept the more common -dal or -dale ending if needed.

8: Black Rose, March of the - New Heraldic Title forwarded

Rose Noir Pursuivant

The name was submitted as Sable Rose Pursuivant. Meaning most important. According to Juliana de Luna, "Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance: Dictionary of Period Forms" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/HeraldicTitles/), a number of English heralds had titles based on heraldic charges. Examples of this are Blanche Rose Pursuivant or Rose Blanche (derived from the white rose of York), Rose Rouge Pursuivant (from the red rose of Lancaster), Leon d'Or Pursuivant, and Rouge Dragon Pursuivant (from the red dragon of Wales). Blanche Rose served the English ambassador to France in 1482, and brought the news of the death of King Louis XI. Rose Rouge came into use in 1602 as an extraordinary title. Leon d'Or served Lord Dudley in 1446. Rouge Dragon was created by Henry VII in 1485. The proposed title is derived from the group arms, Argent, a Maltese cross between four roses, each environed of a laurel wreath sable.

The cited article states that normal color names (usually in French) were used, rather than heraldic tinctures: Blanch Lyon Pursuivant, Rouge Croix Pursuivant, Noir Taureau Pursuivant. Sometimes the tincture comes second: Leon d'Or Pursuivant, Rose Blanche Pursuivant and Eagle Vert Pursuivant (note that vert is the French word for green; the heraldic tincture name is the same). As sable is a heraldic tincture, not the normal color word, its use does not follow the documented pattern. Either Black Rose Pursuivant, Noir Rose Pursuivant, or Rose Noir Pursuivant would be supported. The name has been changed to Rose Noir Pursuivant, as it is the one preferred by the submitter.

9: Catherine de Sant Martí - New Name Change forwarded & New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) In pale a crescent pendant Or conjoined to a fess embattled couped argent

Old Item: Katryne Blak, to be retained. The submitter desires a female name. No changes. Language/culture (Catalan) most important. Culture (Catalan) most important. Catherine's current name was registered in 05/2005 via the East. A prior name change was submitted on the 06/22/2009 East Kingdom External Letter of Intent, but was withdrawn. Catherine's device, Azure, a crescent pendant Or and a bordure denticulada argent, was registered 10/2009 via the East. She also has a badge, Argent, a fox passant gules within a bordure per saltire sable and gules, registered in 10/2006 via the East. Catherine appears in Joseph J. Gwara, Jr: "The Sala Family Archives, A Hand List of Medieval and Early Modern Catalonian Charters" (http://www8.georgetown.edu/departments/medieval/labyrinth/professional/pubs/sala/ and http://www8.georgetown.edu/departments/medieval/labyrinth/professional/pubs/sala/handlist.html), with his wife Catherine of Vic, year 1483. de Sant Martí is a locative byname found in the raw data section of Arval Benicoeur, "Catalan Names from 12th and 13th Century Charters" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catalan/catalan.html and http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catalan/catalanData.html). It appears once in the charter labeled "Vic, Arxiu Capitular, calaix 6, no. 383", which lists a Guillem de Sant Martí. The charters are dated between 1101 and 1269, but the online archive containing them has been moved or deleted, so a more specific date could not be found. For locative names since the 13th century, there's still a Sant Martí location in the vicinity of Vic (http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&source=hp&q=sant%20marti%20spain&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wl). The submitter wants a Catalan name; both name elements are from the same geographic area (the vicinity of Vic).

Eleazar ha LeviEleazar ha Levi

10: Eleazar ha Levi - New Badge forwarded

Per bend sinister argent and gules, a fleam gules and a bee Or

His name was registered 09/1986 via the East, along with a device, Per pale dovetailed Or and azure, three mullets of six points in pale and a date palm tree, eradicated and fructed, all counterchanged. He has one badge, registered 04/1990 (East).

Due to comments about the identifiability of the bee, the submitter has redrawn the badge.

11: Fergus Derg - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Or, a bear passant and in chief a bow and arrow fesswise in pale sable

The name was submitted as Fergus Redmead. The submitter desires a male name. The Client requests authenticity for mid-1300s Scotland or Ireland. Meaning ('Red (color), mead (drink)') most important. Fergus is the name of Fergus, Earl of Buchan, d. 1233 (Bruce A. McAndrew, ed., The Balliol Roll, Boston, MA: The Committee on Heraldry of the New England Historical Genealogical Society; 2002, p. 12). It also appears in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/irish100.html). In a discussion of occupational bynames, P.H. Reaney, Origin of English Surnames, p. 184, cites the drink-related names <Meader> and <Medemaker>. On p. 183, a baker named <Whitebread> is found. Redmead is intended as an occupational byname for someone who makes mead of a reddish color, or as a toponymic for someone living near a meadow of red-flowering plants. The submitter prefers the form <Fergus Redmead>, but would accept translating both elements into Gaelic if the meaning "red mead (drink)" is preserved.

Commenters noted that the authenticity request was inconsistent with the submitted byname: according to "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" by Sharon Krossa, both occupatiohnal bynames and locative bynames were "vanishingly rare" in Gaelic. (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#rare). Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Fearghus.shtml) described Fergus as an Old Irish Gaelic name, found in entries dated 523-926, and as an Early Modern Irish Gaelic Name, found in entries for 1402-1599. A similar byname was suggested by Elmet: Derg 'wine-red'/ This is an Old Irish Gaelic name found in entries for 555-862 (ibid., http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Derg.shtml). According to Leviathan, the submitter has accepted this suggestion.

One commenter though that the device bordered visually on slot-machine heraldry, but didn't go so far as to suggest its return. As such, the device is being forwarded with the name.

12: Finnghuala Rowan - Resub Device forwarded

Per bend sinister gules and sable, a dog passant argent marked sable between in bend two hearts argent

Her name was registered 11/2008 via the East. Her prior device submission, Per bend sinister gules and sable, a dog passant argent spotted sable between in bend two hearts ermine, was returned in 07/2009 (East) for unrecognizability due to the inability to distinguish between the ermine hearts and the spots on the dog. This submission has removed the ermine treatment.

13: Gianotta dalla Fiora - New Alternate Name forwarded

Adeliza da Salerno

The name was submitted as Adelisa di Salerno. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Language/culture (unspecified) most important. Meaning (Spelling) most important. Adelaisa, Adeleisa, and Adeliza appear in Academy of Saint Gabriel report #3009 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/3009), which states that the name was taken from 11th and early 12th century documents from in and around Normandy. di Salerno is the Italian form of the byname of Roger of Salerno, the first Italian writer on surgery, and the author of Practica Chirurgiae c. 1180. The submission cited Dagi Greenblatt and Epste, A History of Neurosurgery (The American Assoc. of Neurological Surgeons, 1997, pp. 55-7).

The standard Italian locative form is <da + placename>. See, for example, "Italian Men's Names in Rome, 1473-1484" by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/Studium/Construction.shtml) and (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/Studium/LocativeBynames.shtml). Salerno is found in that spelling as a place name in "Mercator's Place Names of Italy in 1554" by Andrea Hicks, in the Southern Italy section (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/mercator/south.html). Commenters were concerned about the name containing two possible steps from period practice: one for the combination of languages, and one for the temporal disparity between the elements. It is not entirely clear which spellings in the Academy of Saint Gabriel's report were Old French, which were Latin, and which were English. Of the three, the combination of Latin and Italian is the only one that is registerable without a step from period practice. Although the only definitive period of spelling of Salerno found by commenters was in the Mercator's place names article (1554), Salerno was well known earlier in our period. It was the location of one of the first medical schools in Europe (see National Library of Medicine, "Medieval Manuscripts in the National Library of Medicine: Salerno, the Mother of Medical Schools", http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/medieval/salerno.html. The school was so well known that an anonymous poem was written about the school c. 12th or 13th century: Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, written in Latin and later translated into Italian, French, English, and other languages. The Latin text can be found at http://www.accademiajr.it/bibvirt/regimen.html, and starts with "Anglorum regi scripsit tota schola Salerni..." An English translation and background of the work are found at http://www.godecookery.com/regimen/regimen.htm. Based on the Latin spellings, the Salerno spelling seems to be plausible in Italian at a time that is more compatible with the given name.

The name was changed to Adeliza da Salerno to better match the documentation. Adeliza was chosen because it seemed to be the closest to the submitted spelling Adelisa, and di was changed to da because the few examples we have of the <di + locative> pattern are from late in the 15th century (see Mari's "Italian Men's Names in Rome, 1473-1484"). More geographically and temporally compatible forms are <Adelasia>, found in Josh Mittleman, "Feminine Given Names from Thirteenth Century Perugia" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/perugia/perugiaFemAlpha.html), and <Adalasia>, from Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Italian names from Imola, 1312" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/imolafemalph.html). Changing the language to a wholly Italian name, however, is a major change, which the submitter does not allow.

14: Goerijs Goriszoon - New Device forwarded

Per bend Or and sable, a sword bendwise and a hurdy-gurdy bendwise, crank to base, counterchanged

Goerijs' name was registered in 02/2008 via the East. It is believed that this will be the defining instance of a hurdy-gurdy in SCA heraldry. Documentation that this is a period artifact has been included. Two figures can be seen playing an organistrum, an early form of the hurdy-gurdy, on the Portica de la Gloria of the cathedral at Santiago de Compostella (1168-1188). This instrument can also be seen in The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1500, and in a page from the Sforza Book of Hours, c. 1490. Images from Santiago and the Sforza Hours can be found at http://www.essentialvermeer.com/folk_music/hurdygurdy.html. A detail of the Bosch painting can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hieronymus_Bosch_040.jpg. Generally, musical instruments are palewise affronty; however, after input from Batonvert - who plays the hurdy-gurdy - it was blazoned as "bendwise, crank to base".

15: Isabel Chamberlaine - New Name forwarded

The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Spelling of 'Chamberlaine' most important. Isabel is a feminine given name found in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyHZ.html): Isabel 1141-49, c.1160 Isabel; 1268 Fort; 1276 Babbel; 1304 Herringcarter; 1327 Heathfield; 1354 Setter; 1379 Somersham; 1440 Huggett; 1473 Hulver; 1485 Sorbie; 1535 Normanville. Chamberlaine is an occupational byname found as a header in R&W. Fifteenth to 16th century spellings include Chaumbrelayne, found in Karen Larsdatter "Names from 15th Century York" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/york15/index.htm), Chamberleyn, Chamberlayne, Chamberlen, and Chamberlin from Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Index of Names in the 1541 Subsidy Roll of London" and "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/london1541.html and http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/london1582.html, respectively). The submitted spelling, dated 1600, occurs in Hooker's list of the records, Report on the Records of the City of Exeter (1916), pp. XII-XVI. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67114):

The veiwe and survey of all the Records, Evidences, Chartors and writinges whatsoever appertaininge to the Chambre and Citie of Excester Collected by John Hooker, Chamberlaine of the sayed Citie as followethe. Januarij 1600.

Elmet noted that the desired spelling Chamberlaine also appears in Hitching and Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602, dated 1602 (p. xxxiv).

Ivan valfrekrIvan valfrekr

16: Ivan valfrekr - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Argent semy of towers sable, a rose gules, slipped and leaved vert, with thorns sable

The submitter desires a male name. No changes. Ivan is the Russianization of John (older form <Ioann>) and one of the most common masculine given names according to Wickenden, s.n. Ioann (http:http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/paul/). An example is Ivan (Ivan Fomin syn, governor), 1181-2. valfrekr is a nickname given in Geirr Bassi (p. 29). The combination of Russian and Old Norse is a step from period practice [Gorm Bolin, 10/2009].

Commenters noted a possible conflict with Ivarr Valfrekr (04/1998, Middle). Although they felt it was sufficiently different in sound, they were not sure about appearance.

The original emblazon depicted a rosebud, which is not registerable. With the submitter's permission, the rose was redrawn. Unfortunately, however, there is a conflict with Judith the Rose (10/1998, Atenveldt), Argent, a rose gules slipped and leaved proper.

17: Iwain de Vassy - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per bend sinister embattled sable and lozengy azure and argent, a mullet of four points elongated to base argent and an anvil Or

Meaning (Spelling: either Vassy or Vescy) most important. Iwain (more commonly spelled <Ivain> or <Yvain>), the Knight of the Lion, is a character from Arthurian legend. This spelling is found in Louis-Fernand Flutre, Tables des Noms Propres avec toutes leurs Veriantees Figurant dans les Romans du Moyen Age Écrits en Français ou en Provençal et Actuellement Publiés ou Analysés (Poitiers, France: Centre D'Études Supérieurs de Civilisation Médiévale; 1962, p. 110, s.n. Ivain, -vein). The entry states as follows: "Iwain (Durm, Ider, Melion 356, Melus, Meriad 80, Merl H II, 231, Perc 11219." Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature, as there is a pattern of such names being used in England and France in period [Bedivere de Bryon, 06/1999, Atlantia]. Yvain/Iwain was a fairly major character, being the subject of a popular work by Chretien de Troyes (1165-80). Vassy is a place in Calvados, France, that was the site of a massacre of Protestants by the Duc de Guise in 1562 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassy,_Calvados). D&R, s.n. Vaissac (p. 694) lists the dated forms Vadeium (1107), Vaceium (1187), and Vaixi (1486). Morlet Dictionnaire, s.n. Vassy (p. 953) provides no dated forms, but simply lists the name as deriving from the gallo-roman place name Vacciacum. Documentation was also included for the submitter's second choice of de Vescy: it is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "An Index to the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/LincLSR/BynU.html), with the examples Isabel le [sic] vescy, Isabel de Vescy, and John veysi.

In the late 16th century, the locative appears as Vassy, Vassi, and Wassy. An etching based on the massacre includes the submitted spelling in the caption ("Le massacre fait à Vassy..."), as seen in Philip Benedict, Jacques Tortorel, and Jean Perrissin, Graphic history: the Wars, massacres and troubles of Tortorel and Perrissin (Librairie Droz, 2007, p. 267) (http://books.google.com/books?id=ZO75rkTPt5QC&pg=PA261&lpg=PA261&dq=massacre+at+vassy&source=bl&ots=K0DoDa3Uni&sig=YgICpzigLgn6HQYFQ1JgpMkVDzs&hl=en&ei=0AkcS-TUBpTSlAeC9bTvCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAoQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=&f=false). This souces discusses French books on the massacres that were published prior to 1570. This print appears to have been published in 1569, and the full caption is apparently "Le massacre fait à Vassy le premier jour de mars 1562" (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Massacre_of_Vassy.jpg), although the original caption has been cropped from this image.

Commenters were concerned about the lack of contrast in this device, both with the embattled field division against the lozengy treatment (and thus, lack of identifiability of the line of division), and the anvil against the lozengy part of the field. I am forwarding this to the College of Arms for further discussion.

18: Jibril ibn `Ammar al-Fayyad - Resub Device forwarded

Argent, a decrescent sable between two curved swords in scabbards fesswise addorsed and a chalice gules

His name was registered and a prior device submission, Argent, a decrescent gules, on a chief sable two scimitars addorsed argent and on a base sable a kylix argent, was returned after being withdrawn by the submitter on the 10/2009 LoAR (East) for the use of a red decrescent on an argent background, which is the protected armory of the International Red Cross. This resubmission changes the tincture of the decrescent, and removes the charged chief and charged base from the first design. Documentation has been included for the use of addorsed charges (e.g., weapons and polo sticks) and the use of occupational charges in Islamic heraldry, from Da'ud ibn Auda, "Islamic Heraldry: An Introduction" (http://www.appletonstudios.com/MamlukHeraldry2001.pdf). The sword depiction used is from a 14th century textile fragment described as a "blazon of sword bearer", currently found in the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, Egypt (http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.element&story_id=&module_id=&language_id=1&element_id=41038). A similar depiction is also found in Da'ud's article, along with the depiction of the chalice used for this submission. Although identifiability of the swords may be questionable to some viewers, it is most important to the submitter that his device have the same ones found in period examples of Islamic heraldry.

A very similar chalice is found in a heraldic roundel found on a c. 1290 candlestick base that is presently in the Walters Art Museum (http://art.thewalters.org/viewwoa.aspx?id=15804). Commenters were divided on whether the scabbarded swords were identifiable; however, due to the bias involved with being the consulting herald, I am forwarding this for Wreath to decide.

19: Judith Daft - New Household Name forwarded & New Badge returned

Valgautr House

Gules, a winged sword argent

The name was submitted as House Valgautr. No major changes. Sound ('Sword' or 'winged') most important [the submission had originally been for "House Winged Sword", but the desired sound was not revised for the final submission]. Her name was registered 04/2003, and a device, Gules semy of bees, a beehive and on a chief Or two Maltese crosses gules, in 09/2008 via the East. Valgautr is based on the elements <Vali->, found in Geirr Bassi on p. 15, and <-gautr>, from <Gautr>, which Cleasby and Vigffusson states is a poetic name for Odinn, with the suggested meaning of 'father'. An example of this element is the name Agautr. The name submission also cited Gunnvôr silfrahárr(The Viking Answer Lady), "Old Norse Men's Names" (http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames.shtml#), s.n. Agautr, and Gillian Fellows-Jenson, Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1968, pp. 348-9). Which information came from which source was not summarized; copies were not provided.

The incorrect forms were used for this submission. The submitter was contacted to fix this. In addition, the submitter confirmed that House Valgautr was the desired name, as the prior version House Winged Sword had been whited out on the armory submission forms, except for one copy.

The article by the The Viking Answer Lady, cited above, noted that <Gautr>l is found in Old Danish as <Gøt>, in Old Swedish as <Gøt> (also found as a byname), and in OW.Norse as <Gautr> (also found as a byname). It appears in the singular form as well as the plural or OW.Norse <gautar> 'inhabitant of Götland, Götlander'. Cleasby-Vigfusson dictionary notes that the masculine name <Gautr> is a poetical name for Óðinn, and suggests that it may mean 'father'. Runic examples include the nominative forms kaut, kautr, kotr, kut, kutr, the genitive form kaus, the dative form kuti and the accusative forms kaut, [kut]. A short form of names in Gaut- is Gauti. Sources used in this article were Gillian Fellows-Jensen, Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire (Copenhagen. Akademisk Forlag. 1968. pp. 98, 348-349 s.nn. Gauti, Gautr, Gaut-, -gauti, -gautr), Lena Peterson, Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. (Dictionary of Names from Old Norse Runic Inscriptions) [Språk- och folkminnes-institutet (Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research). Accessed 30 September 2005. s.n. Gauti, Gaut-, Gautr]. The article also discussed the first element <Val-> s.n. Valbjorn, stating that it was of uncertain origin. It was possibly from Primitive Germanic *walha-, meaning 'Celtic, Welsh, foreign' or Primitive Germanic *wala-, Old Icelandic valr 'the dead on a battlefield'. For these, she cites Geirr Bassi (s.n. Valbjörn, p. 15); Fellows-Jensen (ibid., s.nn. Val-, -björn, pp. 347-8); and Cleasby and Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary (2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. 1957, s.v. Valir, valr, pp. 675, 676). Therefore, the construction Valgautr is plausible for a men's byname.

Another commenter noted that Valgautrappears in the subpage "Old Norse Names and the Gods" as a masculine disguise name for Óðinn (The Viking Answer Lady, "Old Norse Names and the Gods", http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONNames.shtml). This part of her name article also contains the caveat that these names were not necessarily used in period by the Vikings, but were intended for modern use for those who want to show an affinity or relationship with the Norse gods. However, on the basis that Valgautr was also found in the main article on Old Norse men's names (emphasis mine), I do not consider that use of this name is presumptuous or a claim of divinity.

Documentation was not provided that the pattern "House X" is appropriate in a Norse name. We could try to make a case for it via the lingua anglica allowance, but we'd still have to show that this pattern would be appropriate in the source language. However, as Scandinavian names were found in England, I am giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt that an English pattern could be used with the submitted byname. The patterns "X House" and "House of X" were in use in England, but not "House X". Elmet noted that there are English place names using Norse given names + a place name element (e.g., -thorp, -by, -hus 'house'), as found in Ekwall and Mills. As such, a lingua anglica form of might be supported for something like Valgautr plus one of those elements. In addition, Brian M. Scott, "Place-Names in Landnámabók (Incomplete)" (http://my.stratos.net/~bmscott/Landnamabok_Place-Names.html) has other examples of given names + toponymics, for which "House of Valgautr" or "Valgautr House" could be considered a viable lingua anglica translation:

Auðartoptir, Dal. (temporary farm): From the feminine name Auðr, genitive Auðar, and OIc. topt 'a toft, a homestead; a place marked out for a house or building; a square plot of ground with walls but no roof', here in the plural toptir: 'Auð's tofts'.

Auðsstaðir, Borg. (farm): From the masculine name Auðr, genitive Auðs, and OIc. staðr 'a place, a stead', here in the plural staðir: 'Auð's stead(s)'.

Balkastaðir, Húnv. (two farms): From the masculine name Balki, genitive Balka, and OIc. staðr 'a place, a stead', here in the plural staðir: 'Balki's stead(s)'.

Baugsstaðir, Árn. (farm): From the masculine name Baugr, genitive Baugs, and OIc. staðr 'a place, a stead', here in the plural staðir: 'Baug's stead(s)'

Garðar. Garðar is the nominative plural of OIc. garðr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold', here in the sense 'stronghold'.

Gaulverjabœr, Árn. (farm): From OIc. Gaulverjar 'men of Gaular', genitive plural Gaulverja, and bœr 'a farmhouse, a farmstead': 'farm of the men from Gaular'. The original settler was Loptr Orms son, who came to Iceland from Gaular.

Hrafnstóptir, Rang. (temporary farm): From the masculine name Hrafn, genitive Hrafns, and OIc. topt 'a toft, a homestead; a place marked out for a house or building; a square plot of ground with walls but no roof', here in the plural toptir: 'Hrafn's tofts'.

Following the pattern of Baugsstaðir, I'd expect the Old Norse/Icelandic version to be something like <Valgautsstaðir>

The pattern <name + stead/place> seems reasonably close in meaning to the <House X> pattern found in England. The name was changed to Valgautr House with the specific permission of the submitter (as she had disallowed major changes on the form).

Unfortunately, the badge conflicts with Brand Armand of Lancaster (08/1995, Caid), Gules, a winged sword Or, with only one CD for the change in tincture of the primary charge.

20: Kathryn Fontayne - New Device forwarded

Per pale azure and purpure, a rose within an orle of oak leaves conjoined argent

Her name was registered in 02/2008 via the East.

Commenters noted that the acorns were barely visible, and suggested that the fructing be eliminated from the blazon. This has been done.

The device is clear of Jonas Aquilian (11/1990, Caid), Per pale azure and sable, a rose within a bordure embattled argent. There is a CD for the change in tincture of one half of the field, and another for changing the bordure to an orle.

21: Konrad von Altorff - Resub Device forwarded

Per fess Or and bendy sinister gules and argent, a bull's head caboshed and in chief two eagles sable

His name was registered in 06/2006 via the East. His original device, Gyronny Or and sable, a cross couped argent was returned for conflict on the 01/31/2006 East Kingdom Letter of Decision. This is a complete redesign.

22: Leofflæda of Endeweard - New Name forwarded

The name was submitted as Leofflaeda of Endeweard. No major changes. Leofflæda is listed as an Anglo-Saxon woman's name in Marieke van de Dal, "Anglo-Saxon Women's Names from Royal Charters" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/marieke/anglosaxonfem/), under the header <Leofflæd>. The Sawyer catalog number for the submitted spelling is S-1469, dated 1043x1046, and was for an English-language entry. of Endeweard is a locative byname based on the branch name Endeweard, Shire of, registered in 01/1987 via the East.

The spelling of the name was changed to match the available documentation (using the a-e ligature), although the same article had an alternative spelling of Leoffleda. The name should be sufficiently different in sound and appearance of Leofcwen of Endeweard (11/2008, East).

23: Lisabetta Medaglia - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Argent, a griffin sejant purpure maintaining a bow proper, all within a bordure azure semy of plates

Spelling ("Medaglia" or "Medella") most important. Lisabetta appears three times in Arval Benicoeur, "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/#alpha); and is also found in Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale, "Italian Renaissance Women's Names" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html). Medaglia is a surname based on that of architect Antonio Medaglia, who was active c. 1520's in Italy. He is found in the following references:

Margaretta Salinger, "Veronese's Portrait of the Sculptor Vittoria". In: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Summer, 1946), pp. 7-14 (http://www.jstor.org/stable/3257397).

Aldo Gorfer, "Trento città del Concilio" (http://books.google.com/books?id=79e8nZ0c2ngC&source=gbs_navlinks_s), p. 132. This speaks of Antonio Medaglia's involvement in the construction of la Basilica di San Maria Maggiore, c. 1520-4.

Anton Henze, "The Pope and the world: an illustrated history of the Ecumenical Councils" (http://books.google.com/books?id=UVZpAAAAIAAJ&q=Antonio+Medaglia+Bernard+Cles&dg=Antonio+Medaglia+Bernard+Cles&Ir=). Although this book is snippet view only, searching by 'Antonio Medaglia' confirms his involvement in the construction of a church in Trent at the behest of Bishop Bernard Cles.

Lastly, "Florio's 1611 Italian/English Dictionary" (http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/florio/), p. 305, defines the word Medáglia as "any ancient medaile, coine, stamp or image. Also a jewell, an ousch, a brouch, any embossed or graven worke of metals." A hypothetical occupational surname Medaglia could denote workers in embossed and engraved metal. In the event that the submitter cannot have Medaglia, she requests the surname Meralla, which is found in Girolamo Caracausi, Dizionario Onomastico della Sicilia, Palermo, 1994, s.n. Meraglia, which states that it "...corresponde topographicalmente a Miraglia; cfr. Andreas Meralla... a. 1326" [translation: "corresponds topographically to Miraglia; compare to Andreas Meralla...year 1326."].

The original blazon on the paperwork, Argent, a griffin sejant purpure beaked Or maintaining in its forepaw a bow proper, all within a border azure semy of plates, was changed because the beak color is generally no longer blazoned, quadropeds typically maintain items in their forepaws, and the heraldic spelling of 'border' should be used. The device is clear of Johannes von Baden (04/1991, Meridies), Argent, a griffin sejant, dexter forepaw raised, azure within a bordure invected gules; Alvaro de la Bastida (04/2001, Atlantia), Argent, a griffin sejant dexter forepaw raised sable, on a chief azure three acorns Or; Augaire Uisnigh (12/1994, Outlands), Argent, a griffin sejant between in pale two hearts gules; and Bronwyn ferch Brien Caerdydd Mawr (02/1990, Caid), Argent, a griffin sejant and on a chief azure, an arrow, barb to sinister, Or. All of these had three or more CDs from the submitted armory.

24: Malcolm Bowman - New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) A hedgehog rampant to sinister argent

Malcolm's name and device, Per saltire sable and vert, a hedgehog rampant to sinister argent, were registered in 11/1998 via the East.

The badge is clear of Gwyl ferch Teleri Celli Caregi (08/1987, Atlantia), Vert, a hedgehog rampant to sinister within a bordure argent, with one CD for fieldlessness and another for removal of the bordure. It is clear of Tholen der Egel (11/2000, Atlantia), (Fieldless) A hedgehog rampant azure, with one CD for fieldlessness, and two more for the changes in tincture and orientation. It is also clear of Cáemgen mac Olcain (08/2001, West), (Fieldless) An hedgehog rampant ermine for the same reasons. The badge is clear of Angus MacClerie (03/1997, East), Argent, an urchin rampant contourny sable, a bordure invected gules, with one CD for fieldlessness, one for the removal of the bordure, and one for the tincture of the hedgehog. It is clear of an in-progress submission, Sarra the Lymner (01/31/2010, East Kingdom xLoI), (Fieldless) A hedgehog proper. There is one CD for fieldlessness, one for the change in tincture of at least half of the primary charge, and one for the posture/orientation of the hedgehog. The submitter cannot conflict with his own device.

25: Marguerite inghean Lachlainn - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Vert, on a bend sinister argent three mushrooms palewise azure

The name was submitted as Marguerite Ingen Lachlainn. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Marguerite is found in Colm Dubh, "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/paris.html#M), which lists a Marguerite la lavendière. ingen is the patronymic particle meaning 'daughter'. This spelling is appropriate before c. 1200. After c. 1200, the spelling <inghean> was used (Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names", 3rd edn., http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#spelling). Lachlainn is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Lochlainn.shtml), years 983-1486. The standard form is <Lochlainn>, which is the same in the nominative and genitive cases for both Middle Irish Gaelic (c900-c1200) and Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c1200-c1700). The submitted spelling is not found in the raw data for this name, although it is found under the header form <Magnus>, with Maghnus mac Diarmada Uí Lachlainn appearing in an entry for year 1201 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Magnus.shtml). It is also found the the CELT archive (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/search.html), including Four Masters 1059.entry 18, Crech la h-Ardghar mac Lachlainn; Four Masters 1122.entry 11, Conchobhar Mac Lachlainn; Four Masters 1151.entry 6, Néill mic Mac Lachlainn; and Ulster 1201.entry 6 Iarsin tainig Mac Lachlainn .i., Conchubhar Beacc i n-a foirithin. The submitter specifically will not accept the Gaelic form of the given name (<Mairghread>), and has indicated that she especially wants the submitted spelling of the given name. The combination of French and Gaelic is a step from period practice [Maura MacPharlain, 02/00].

Elmet noted that the submitted spelling Marguerite continued in use through the 15th century, as found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/paris1423.html), and "Names from Choisy, France, 1475-1478" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/choisy.html). Since the Annals were compiled much later than the dates on the entries, the 15th century examples of the given name are likely more temporally compatible with the desired spelling of the byname.

The capitalization of the particle was corrected, and its spelling was changed from ingen to inghean, which is appropriate after c1200.

Unfortunately, the device conflicts with Leslie the Brown (06/1986, Ansteorra), Vert, on a bend sinister argent a Hermit Thrush close proper. [Hylocichla guttata], with but a single CD for the changes to the tertiary charges.

26: Marguerite inghean Lachlainn - New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) A mushroom quarterly vert and azure

Her name is submitted above.

The original blazon was simply A mushroom, quarterly vert and azure gilled argent, but the emblazon did not have argent gills, and the field (or lack thereof) was not indicated. It has been reblazoned after clarification was received from the submitter. It is clear of Deirdre Marianne Steele of Cowdray (03/1987, West), Argent, a mushroom capped per pale purpure and Or and stemmed per pale Or and purpure, with a CD for fieldlessness and another for the change in tincture of the primary charge.

27: Muin maqq Mínaín - New Device Change forwarded

Per saltire Or semy of flames vert, and vert, an annulet counterchanged vert and Or

Old Item: Vert, on a plate, a flame issuant to chief from a bowl vert and a bordure rayonny Or, to be released. His name and a badge were registered in 11/1997 via Atlantia. His previous device was registered in 03/1999 via the East.

28: Owain ap Dafydd o Llyn Cwellyn - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Or semy of beech leaves bendwise vert, an elephant statant affronty purpure

The submitter desires a male name. Client requests authenticity for 10th to 11th century Welsh. Meaning ("son of Dafydd o Llyn Cwellyn") most important. Owyn is an Old Welsh name meaning 'well-born' based on the Greek name Eugenios. ap denotes 'son of' in Old Welsh (shortened from "map"). Daffyd is an Old Welsh name meaning 'beloved' based on the Hebrew name David. o denotes 'of' in Old Welsh. Llyn Cwellyn is a lake located near Snowdon in Wales.

Sources for the above information were not provided. However, Owyn is the son of Daffyd o Llyn Cwellyn (08/1982, East), and thus entitled to both having a name denoting that relationship and to use the grandfather clause for the elements of the patronym. A letter attesting the relationship and granting permission to presume has been provided:

I, [redacted], known in the SCA as Dafydd o Llyn Cwellyn, do attest that [redacted], known in the SCA as Owen ap Dafydd o Llyn Cwellyn, is my legal son. I give him permission for my Society name to be used in part of his Society name in order to indicate a relationship. I understand that this letter cannot be withdrawn once [redacted]'s name is registered. (Signed with Dafydd's legal name and dated 1-4-2010)

The SCA name in the letter of permission used Owen rather than the submitted Owyn, but this should not be a barrier to registration. The documentation of both the relationship and intent of the permission is clear. Owyn appears in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Index of Names in the 1541 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/enggivlondon1541.html) in the section on given names of English men and women. The pattern <ap + father's name> was still in use as late as 1601, as evidenced by Hitching & Hitching, References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602, at p. xx, which shows the surnames <Ap Hugh>, <Ap John>, <Ap Mathew>, <Ap Richard>, <Ap Ryse> and <Ap Thomas>. English and Welsh can be combined without being considered a step from period practice.

A commenter noted that the spelling Owain is dated to c.1100-1171 on p. 77 of Heini Gruffudd's Welsh Names for Children, which is closer to the submitter's desired time period than the submitted Owyn. This source, however, is one that must be approached with caution, as the dates are presumably accurate, but the spellings may or may not be. However, I am willing to give this the benefit of the doubt, and have changed the given name to try to more closely meet the request for authenticity. Although Elmet documented the use of "ap" as the patronymic particle, we do not have documentation for the use of the father's full name in the patronym. However, I am forwarding the name with the patronym unchanged so that the College of Arms can determine whether this is a plausible construction.

29: Robert the Doubtfull - New Device Change forwarded

Gules, on a pale engrailed Or between two tankards argent a sickle sable

Old Item: Gules, on a pale engrailed Or between two tankards argent two arrows in fess vert, to be released. Robert's name was registered in 01/1991 and his original device in 03/1995, both via the East.

30: Sandrine de Berry - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Sable semy-de-lys Or, a swan naiant to sinister argent and on a chief Or three fleurs-de-lys sable

Sandrine is a feminine given name found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Names Found in Ambleny Registers 1578-1616" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Ambleny/FemGivenNames.shtml). The registers list Sandrine Dudrumel (1584) and Sandrine Durand fille de François Durand (1615). de Berry is found in the surnames section of Aryanhwy merch Catmael, French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/paris1423.html), with one instance dated to 1421 (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/paris1423surnames.html).

The device is clear of Brenna Edlyn Blackrose (05/1983, Meridies), Sable, a swan naiant, wings elevated and addorsed argent, and on a chief Or three roses sable, seeded Or, with one CD for the difference in the field, and another for the orientation of the swan. It is clear of Lilian Guy of Swanton (06/1987, West), Sable, a swan naiant to sinister Or within an orle of fleurs-de-lys argent, with one CD for the difference in the field, one for changing an orle to a chief, and another for adding the tertiary charges. It is clear of Xristina Viacheslavivna (06/2008, Ealdormere), Azure crusilly Or, a swan naiant to sinister wings addorsed argent. There is one CD for the field, one for adding a chief, one for the type of strewn charges, and one for the addition of the tertiary charges.

31: Sera bat Josce - New Name forwarded

The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Language/culture (Jewish woman living in Angevin England) most important. Both Sera and Josce are found in Eleazar ha-Levi, "Jewish Naming Conventions in Angevin England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/jewish.html). Sera is a variant of Sarah, and Josce of Joseph. The article indicates that "fil" may have been used as a vernacular patronymic for both men and women. The submitter would prefer "bat", but will accept "fil" or "fille" if necessary.

Eleazar noted that the Latin fil, short for filia 'daughter', would have been used in legal documents of the Angevin period (i.e., non-Jewish records), as the translation of the Hebrew bat. Thus, the Latin form, Sera filia Josce, is a formal translation of the Jewish name Sera bat Josce. Documentation for bat the Sephardic 'daughter [of]' is found in Julie Stampnitzky, "Glossary for Titles and Bynames" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/titles.html).

32: Siobhan inghean Chormaic - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per chevron argent and azure, a chevron counterchanged between three pheons gules and a triquetra argent

The name was submitted as Siobhan inghean Cormaic. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Language/culture (unspecified) most important. Siobhan is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Siban.shtml), with the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic form being <Siobhán>, found in years 1310-1600. inghean is the patronymic particle meaning "daughter [of]", according to Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (3rd edn., http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/). This spelling is appropriate after c. 1200. The pattern <given name> + inghean + <father's name in the genitive case and nearly always lenited> is also found in this source. Cormaic is also found in Mari's article (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Cormacc.shtml), where it is identified as the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic genitive form of the name, found in years 762-1589. It also appears as the 10th most popular name in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/irish100.html).

The name was changed because the patronym needed to be lenited per Sharon Krossa's article.

33: Þórlæifr hvítskegg - Resub Badge withdrawn by the submitter

Sable, two arrows inverted in saltire Or, overall three wolves heads caboshed one and two argent

Þórlæifr's name was registered 03/2007 via the East. He has had two previous device submissions. The first, Sable, three wolf's heads caboshed one and two argent each jessant of an arrow Or, was returned on the 12/2007 LoAR (East) for being two steps from period practice (use of a head other than a leopard jessant, and the use of a jessant charge that wasn't a fleur-de-lys). The second, Sable, three wolf's heads caboshed one and two argent, was returned for conflict with Fandal Silverfox, Sable, a fox's mask argent. For the present submission, the arrows were made the primary charge with the wolf heads overall to clear the conflict. In addition, this has been changed from a device to a badge.

This submission was withdrawn by the submitter after the iLoI was issued. If it had not been withdrawn, it would have been returned because it was the feeling of commenters that a group of charges such as the wolf's heads in this design could not be overall. In particular, the topmost head was barely touching the underlying arrows, and was nearly all directly on the field.

34: Vienna de la Mer - New Name Change forwarded

Old Item: Viennet de la Mer, to be retained. The submitter's current name, Viennet de la Mer, was registered in 01/2004 via the East. Vienna is found in Juliana de Luna, "Names from Sixteenth Century Venice", s.n. Viena (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/16thcvenice.html). de la Mer is grandfathered to the submitter. It was originally documented as a French byname (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/loar/2004/01/04-01lar.html). The combination of French and Italian is registerable, but is a step from period practice [Marion Leoncina da Susa, 01/2005, Meridies].


[Cleasby and Vigfusson] Cleasby, Richard, and Gudbrand Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary.

[D&R] Dauzat, Albert and Rostaing, Charles. Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Lieux de la France.

[Geirr Bassi] Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name.

[Morlet Dictionnaire] Morlet, Maire-Therese. Dictionnaire Étymologique de Noms de Famille.

[Wickenden] Paul Wickenden of Thanet, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names. Online edition.

[Withycombe] Withycombe, E.G. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. 3rd edn.