April 10, 2010

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do read this letter, greetings from Lillia de Vaux, Eastern Crown Herald!

This is the Letter of Decisions for the Internal Letters of Intent dated February 14, 2010 and February 22, 2010. There are 10 numbered items. Text in boldface is quoted or summarized from the ILoIs, and my comments follow in normal type. Armory was reblazoned as needed, sometimes without further comment. Unless noted, no conflicts were found.

Thank you to the following commenters: Alys Mackyntoich, Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Gawain of Miskbridge, Kolosvari Arpadne Julia, Ragnveig Snorradottir, Aceline Barrett, Yosef Alaric, and Brunissende Dragonette.

Yours in service,

Lillia de Vaux

1: Aislinn Cinnfhaolaidh - New Name pended & New Device pended

Per fess wavy argent and azure, three escallops inverted and a dolphin naiant counterchanged

The submitter desires a female name. Language and culture (unspecified) most important. Aislinn is a header in OC&M (p. 21), which states that it was originally a male given name, Aislinge that appeared in early literature. The text notes that, until the beginning of the 20th century, Aislinn was in use as a female name in Derry and Omeath, but no specific dates are provided. Cinnfhaolaidh is noted as a Gaelic surname in http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Woulfe/SortedByAnglicizedRoot_K.shtml, no. 465. The article author and title of the article were not provided; the correct citation is Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "16th & 17th Century Anglicized Irish Surnames from Woulfe". The article lists the byname Ó Cinnf.aolaid. (Ó Cinnfhaolaidh).

Aislinn was previously registered by the College as an SCA-compatible name. Such names are no longer registerable as of May 2009:

[A]s of the May 2009 decisions meetings, we declare that no new name elements or name patterns will be ruled SCA-compatible, that all names previously ruled SCA-compatible are no longer SCA-compatible and that in order for them to be registered, documentation meeting the same standards as for non-SCA-compatible names will be required (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/loar/2009/05/09-05cl.html).

The closest Gaelic name that commenters found was Aibhilin (roughly pronounced /AYV-lin/), in Kathleen O'Brien, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" by Kathleen O'Brien (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Aibhilin.shtml), and dated to 1498, 1508, 1510, 1524, 1549, 1560, and 1583. Similar English given names are Acelina (1195), Ascelina (1195-1228), Asselyna (c.1230) [Talan Gwnek, "Feminine Given Names in the Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html)], and Asselina (1296); however, there is a step from period practice for the combination of English and Gaelic [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A], and likely another for temporal disparity for using one of those names with the byname. Of those versions, the only one that might squeak by is Asselina, found in Karen Harris, "An Index to the 1296 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Rutland, England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/Rutland/given-fem-alpha.htm).

The pattern <feminine given name + unmarked surname> is not supported by the documentation. If a clan affiliation byname is desired, the documented form of the surname is Ó Cinnfhaolaidh; therefore, the female form would be inghean Uí Chinnfhaolaidh, per "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (3rd edition) by Sharon Krossa (http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#clanaffiliationbyname).

Presumably, Gaelic is the most important thing to the submitter, although the language and culture choice was not specified on the form. As such, changing the language to English-Gaelic would likely not be acceptable to the submitter. And, since the closest name we found in Gaelic was significantly different in sound, I do not want to alter that without specific instructions from the submitter. Lastly, the type of byname desired (i.e., patronymic or clan affiliation) is not clear from the form. The submitter was contacted during the authoring of this letter for instructions of how she would like to proceed, but had not yet responded by the time the letter was issued. As such, the name and device have been pended until the next Letter of Decision to allow the submitter extra time to reply.

2: Alys Mackyntoich - New Blanket Permission to Conflict forwarded

I, [legal name], known in the SCA as Alys Mackyntoich, waive the full protection of both my primary registered name Alys Mackyntoich and my alternate registered name, Alays de Brantome. I grant permission to any future submitter to register a name that is similar in sound and/or spelling but not identical to my registered names. I specifically grant permission to any future submitter to register a name that would otherwise conflict by virtue of the given name's being a diminutive or variant of Alys or Alays. I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered.

Date: January 17, 2010 [signed with legal name]

3: Asther de Perpinya - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Azure, a burning brazier suspended by two chains from a point, on a tierce Or two mullets of six points in pale gules

The name was submitted as Asther de NaSimha. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Sound (Aster, in some form) most important. Language and culture (Majorcan Jewish, 14th century) most important. Asther is variant spelling of Aster 'Esther', one of the top five names in Juliana de Luna, "Jews in Catalonia: 1250 to 1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews), with nine instances, and the only Biblical name on the list. Ezter is found in Julie Kahan, "Jewish Women's Names in 13th to 15th Century Navarre" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/nav_intro.html), where it is listed as one of the most popular Biblical names. Aster (1200) and Esther (13th century to 1486) also appear in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Jewish Given Names Found in Les Noms Des Israélites en France" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/jewish/levy). Aster, Astera, Astero, and Estero (Asera) appear in Yehoshua ben Haim haYerushalmi, "A sample of Jewish names in Valencia, 1293-1485" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/yehoshua/names_in_valencia.html). In "Sources, for the Study of Medieval Jewish Names: An Annotated Bibliography" by Julie Kahan (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/biblio.html#spain), the description of Régné, Jean, and Yom Tov Assis, Ed. History of the Jews in Aragon: Regesta and Documents 1213-1327 states that the names did not appear to have been altered and that variants were present. The examples given include Aster, Asther, Azter, and Ester, which supports the submitted spelling.

Simha is an alternate transliteration of Sima occurs once in Juliana's article. Julie's article on women's names in Navarre notes that the only popular name derived from an ordinary Hebrew word was Cima, from the Hebrew word simcha 'joy' or 'gladness'. Aryanhwhy's article includes Simcha fille de R. Simson and Simha fille Simson in 1260. Cinha, Simah, Simaha, Sinfa are found in Julie's Sources article, from sources dated 1213-1327. Juliana's article also states that women in the source were described in the text as "my daughter" or "my wife". For the two instances of women described as a daughter, both had matronyms Na is the feminine title of respect corresponding to the documented En (roughtly equivalent to the SCA's 'lord') found in Juliana's article. Yehoshua's article lists an Astroget son of Na Sol and Brafim Fill De na Sol, both men using matronyms. NaVives appears in Julie's Sources article. This also supports the use of the preposition "de" (in some capitalization).

Commenters questioned whether the inclusion of a title like Na was registerable, citing precedent: "we do not register titles or forms of address as part of personal names" [Nefise bint Abdullah, 07/2009 A-East]. Rather than eliminating this element, the submitter indicated a preference for either Asther de Perpinya or Aster de Perpinya, in that order. de Perpinya is a locative byname based on the Catalan form of Perpignan, once capital of the Kingdom of Majorca (Rebecca Lynn Winer, Women, wealth, and community in Perpignan, c. 1250-1300: Christians, Jews, and enslaved Muslims in a medieval Mediterranean town; Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006; ISBN: 0754608042, 9780754608042; p. 10; http://books.google.com/books?id=hKjEIeyXCEQC). The submitted spelling appears in a 1558 Catalan edition of the 14th century Chronica of Ramon Muntaner (d. 1336), found at http://www.lluisvives.com/servlet/SirveObras/jlv/91348064098793506388868/thm0000.htm, f. XVr. The use of a marked locative using the preposition de is found in Juliana's article, cited above.

The device must be returned because the SCA does not allow the use of charged tierces [CL 3/8/91 p.1 and Kajsa Nikulasdotter, 02/03, R-Calontir].

4: Beyond the Mountain, Barony - Resub Badge forwarded

Azure, an acorn bendwise within a mascle argent

This submission is to be associated with White Oak, Order of the

The group name was registered 09/1973. The order name was registered 04/1981 via Laurel.

Although not indicated on the form that this was a resubmission, this badge is a redesign of one returned in kingdom in 01/2007:

[(Fieldless) Atop a hurt an acorn argent.] Per current precedent, this badge must be considered as simply Azure, an acorn argent for conflict checking, because roundels are a standard shape for armorial display (Fáelán mac Cathail and Alisandre d'Ambrecourt, 05/2004 R-Ansteorra). This hence conflicts with all of the following: Tearlach na Drochaide (Sep. 1997 via Æthelmearc), (Fieldless) An acorn argent; Drei Eichen, Barony of (Oct. 1996 via Drachenwald), Azure, an acorn Or; Edana of Hawk's Hill (Jan. 1988 via the West), Azure, in bend two acorns argent; and Roger Stockton (Mar. 1990 via the East), Azure, six acorns, one, three, one, and one, argent.

5: Gavin MacKinnon - Resub Device pended

Per chevron inverted sable and vert, a chevron inverted and in chief an eagle argent

His name was registered 12/2008 via the East. His original device submission, Per pall vert, sable, and sable, a pall and in chief an eagle argent, was returned at the same time:

This is returned for being in violation of section VIII.2.b.v of the Rules for Submission, which requires that elements evenly divided in three tinctures have good contrast between two of their parts. Precedent says:

[Per chevron inverted argent and Or, a pall sable and overall a rose gules seeded Or.] This is being returned for a redraw. As drawn it is not per chevron inverted. It is closest to per pall argent, Or and Or, which is not acceptable. [December 1998, Eleanor de Valence, R-Lochac]

The current submission has the same issue, with the metals and colors reversed.

The device has been redesigned to use a two-part field.

This device is unfortunately returnable because the design blurs the line between a chevron inverted and a chief triangular. The former should start farther down on the sides of the escutcheon, not at its upper corners:

[Argent, on a chauseé azure an aeolius argent, a laurel wreath vert.] The field is not really chaussé; it is not per chevron inverted, it is not a pile, it is not a chief triangular; being somewhere between all of these, we really don't know what it is. Chaussé issues from the corners of the chief and would touch the base point of the shield; per chevron inverted would issue from the sides of the field (rather than the chief corners); a pile would issue from farther in on the chief (rather [than] from the corners) and would almost touch the base point of the shield and would not have room for a charge beneath it; and a chief triangular would not descend the field nearly so far as the one here does. Please have them choose one and reemblazon it properly. [Oct 1990, Ret-Trimaris, Storm, Shire of the]

Lastly, commenters questioned whether the bird was really a hawk and suggested blazoning it as an eagle. If a hawk is desired, and the raptor can be drawn so that it can be identified as such, there is a step from period practice for the use of a bird displayed that isn't an eagle.

The submitter was contacted during the authoring of this letter in order to obtain permission for the redraw, but had not yet responded by the time this letter was issued. The device has been pended until the next Letter of Decision to allow the submitter a little more time.

6: John Marshall atte Forde and Elizabet Marshall - Resub Household Name forwarded

Marshalls Ford Tavern

Meaning (Marshall's ford) most important. John's name was registered 09/2007, and Elizabet's in 08/2002, both via the East. Their previously registered badge (08/2009, A-East), (Fieldless) An acorn Or between and conjoined to two bars wavy couped azure, is to be associated with this household name. The prior submission, "Marshalls ford" was returned on the 08/2009 LoAR (East):

There are two ways that this household name can be interpreted, and under neither is it registerable. If Ford is an acceptable designator for a household name, then per RfS V.2.a, it is not a descriptive element in the submitted name. As such, the name conflicts with the SCA's Office of the Marshal, and with the Marshall Islands, an important non-SCA placename.

If Ford is not the designator, then the household name violates RfS III.2.b, which requires that non-personal names contain "a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element." We cannot add a designator, such as House of, because the submitters do not allow major changes.

At this time we decline to rule whether Ford is an acceptable household designator.

Marshalls ford had originally been intended as a type of business (a ford) named after the proprietor, following the model of tavern names such as Davys Inn [1]. This time, the submitters added a designator (Tavern), as it was implied in the LoAR that this would solve both problems. For this resubmission, then, Marshalls ford is to be considered a constructed place name taken from such a business. Towns in England sometimes evolved from fords named after people, e.g., Ashford in Surrey, Alford in Somerset, and Otford and Aylesford in Kent (all headers in Ekwall). Marshalls ford (or Marshallsford) is not a real place name, so its use in this name should not be presumptuous.

Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "English Sign Names" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/inn/) notes that one sign name, Mitford Tavern, may refer to a place name. In Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "English Sign Names From 17th Century Tradesman's Tokens" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Tokens/), several sign names are also based on place names, e.g., The Antwerp Tavern, Camden House, Ye City of Norwich, and The Royal Exchange Tavern. This resubmission follows this pattern of <place name + Tavern>.

The iLoI inadvertently had the name as Marshalls ford Tavern. The capitalization in the header above has been corrected to match the form.

7: Nevell Sudlow - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Or, in bend three magpies proper

This name was on the 02/14/2010 iLoI, and the device was on the 02/22/2010 iLoI. The submitter desires a male name. No holding name. Sound (unspecified) most important. Nevell is a first name that appears in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engmasclondon1582.html). It is also found in the York Subsidy Rolls from the 1523 York and Ainstey Wapentake (UK & Ireland Genealogy, http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/Misc/SubsidyRolls/ARY/ARYSubsidyRolls1.html), which lists Nevell Morrens Frencheman in goods 20 marks 13s. 4d. Sudlow is a surname found in "Separate Wills: 1544-47 (nos. 200-45)", London Consistory Court Wills 1492-1547: London Record Society 3(1967):125-150 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=64538&strquery=Sudlow). A Thomas Sudlow appears in the will of William Curson, dated 26 Nov 1544: "I remyt to Thomas Sudlow, oon of the clerkes of the Cowntre aforeseyd all such sommys of money as he hath receyved to my use of oon Richerd Serlys, or Rudston..." [entry 204, bdle. II. 34]

Noir Licorne noted that magpies are a period heraldic charge. Commenters felt that the low contrast between the argent part of the magpies and the Or field was acceptable, based on the acceptance of the device of Órækja Ottarsson j Tunsbergi (04/2007, A-Calontir), Quarterly Or and vert, a cross gules between in bend two penguins close respectant proper.

8: Saerlaith ingen Chennetig - Resub Name forwarded & Resub Device forwarded

Per saltire azure and sable, a quatrefoil argent

The name was submitted as Saerlaith ingen Cinneide. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Client requests authenticity for 9th-12th century Ireland.
Language and culture (10th century Irish) most important. Sáerlaith is a header in OC&M (p. 160), which states that it's an "early" female given name meaning 'noble princess'. It was the name of the mother of Máel Brigte mac Dornáin, abbot of Armagh. No specific time period was given. ingen means 'daughter'. Cinnéide is the modern form of Cennétig, a header in OC&M (p. 49). The original form is a male given name meaning 'ugly-headed' or 'rough-headed', and was used by several kings. The modern surname derived from the name is Ó Cinnéide.

Saerlaith also appears in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Saerlaith.shtml) as a Middle Irish Gaelic feminine given name. There is one woman with this name, year 969: Soerlaidh ingin Elchomaigh .c. annis moritur. ["Saerlaith, daughter of Elcomach, died aged one hundred."]. Unfortunately, Cinneide is the standardized Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name, and only the nominative form is provided in Mari's article (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Cennetig.shtml). The standard Middle Irish Gaelic form is Cennétig, and is both the nominative and genitive form of the name. Two men appear in the Annals with this name, years 1159 and 1381: Ceindeidigh mac Briain Ó c-Cuanach and Ceinneittigh Ua Briain .i. mac mic Murchadha. The combination of Old or Middle Irish Gaelic (pre-1200) and Early Modern Irish Gaelic (post-1200) is a step from period practice [Tigernach Ó Catháin, 11/01]. A wholly Middle Irish Gaelic form of the name would be Saerlaith ingen Chennetig. With the submitter's permission, this change was made.

The device is clear of Barbara Wrona (11/2004, East), Per saltire azure and sable, under X.1. It is clear of Geffroi de Mosterol (12/2002, Ealdormere), Per saltire azure and sable, a cross fleury argent, under X.2. It is also clear of the House of York (important non-SCA badge), (Fieldless) A rose argent:

This is clear of conflict with Kathleen Regina the Wild Irish Rose, Or, a rose vert, its stem nowed sable, in chief two lions rampant gules. The type comparison between the primary charges in the devices is, effectively, the difference between a rose and a quatrefoil, and these two charges have a type CD between them: "Quatrefoils and roses do not appear to have been considered equivalent charges in our period" (LoAR of October 1995). There is therefore one CD for changing the type of primary charge from a rose to a four-leaved clover and another CD for removing the charges in chief. [Ærne Clover, 08/2002, A-An Tir]

However, Noir Licorne noted that quatrefoils conflict with cinquefoils [Medwe Janos, 08/1998, p. 21], which conflict with roses [Jacqueline de Meux, 08/2004, R-Calontir]. Since conflict is not necessarily transitive, it is possible that a quatrefoil conflicts with a cinquefoil and a cinquefoil conflicts with a rose, but a quatrefoil doesn't conflict with a rose. Noir Licorne requests an explicit ruling on the matter.

9: Tir Mara, Principality of - New Branch Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Argent, a compass star within a laurel wreath azure and a base engrailed barry engrailed azure and argent

Sound most important. Meaning most important. Although the language and/or culture checkbox was not marked, the form indicated that the group desires a Scots-Gaelic name. Tir 'land, shore' is found in Edward Dwelly, The Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary (Glasgow: Gairm Publications, 1994, pp. 954-5; also found at http://www.dwelly.info/index.aspx?Language=en), and in Malcolm MacLennan, A Pronouncing and Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (Edinburgh: Acair and Mercat Press, 1993, p. 342), under the listings for tìr and tiùrr. Tiùrr has the meanings of 'beach out of reach of the sea' or 'mark of the sea on the shore' (i.e., high-water mark) (Dwelly). Mara 'of the sea/shore/coastline' is noted as the genitive singular form of muir, and is similarly found in Dwelly (pp. 632, 678) and MacLennan (pp. 22, 238). The packet includes the requisite petitions. Note that, although Tir Mara is a Crown Principality, the College of Arms does not track Crown status. As such, it is not a part of the submitted name.

Presumably, the group wants the name to mean something like 'land of the sea'. Elmet noted that Johnston, Place Names of Scotland (p. 235-6, s.n. Tire/e) appears to be based on the first element <tir> and lists the following dated forms: Terra Ethica (c. 1225), Tyrvist (1343), Tiryad (1354), Tereyd (1409), and Tyriage (1467). According to Johnston, one of the suggested derivations of the name is from the Irish tir-etha meaning "land of corn." Johnston also notes that tir and the Latin terra "are cognate." Elmet also found the Irish place name Tir da Ghlas, dated to c. 1300 (modern Terryglass) at http://domesdaymaps.com/IPN-T.htm. She noted that the Scottish entries on that site were consistent with Johnston, so the site seemed to be reasonably reliable. The place-names of Arran by Ronald Currie, John Smith & Son (1908; http://books.google.com/books?id=ms09AAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s; pp. 41, 65) included undated references to Ach na Mara 'field by the sea' , and Rudha Mhara meaning 'sea promontory' (with M(h)ara derived from the Gaelic muir). Great Britain's Ordnance Survey (http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/freefun/didyouknow/placenames/gaelicglossary-m-r.html) includes Rubha na Muice Mara (root: mara), and Sloc na Mara and Taobh na Mara (root muir). These sources, however, give no indication whether the submitted name would be appropriately formed in period, although it's possible that Tir na Mara might be the correct construction. In searching the Annals of the Four Masters, Elmet found Ailbhe Cinn Mara, d'ég. (entry 814.7; http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005A/index.html). This was translated as "Ailbhe of Ceann Mhara, died" (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005A/text064.html). Another entry (1007.6) included Maol Maire ua Gearagain, comharba Cainnigh, & Célechair, mac Duind Cuan, mic Cinneittigh, abb Tíre Da Ghlais, d'ég. (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100005B/index.html), translated as "Maelmaire Ua Gearagain, successor of Cainneach; and Ceileachair, son of Donncuan, son of Ceinneidigh, Abbot of Tir-da-ghlas, died." (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text011.html). References to the place <Tíre Da Ghlais> are also found in entries 879.8, 851.3, and 851.6 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005A/text071.html; http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100005A/text068.html).

On the basis of the Annals of the Four Masters citations, I am giving the submission the benefit of the doubt and forwarding it for further discussion and research.

The star in the device was originally blazoned as "a star of four greater and four lesser points"; it was reblazoned as a compass star per SCA practice. The base was blazoned as a 'base engrailed azure and argent'; it was reblazoned as a "base engrailed barry of three engrailed azure and argent."

10: Vassilis Monemvasios - Resub Device forwarded

Or, four helmets affronty in cross, bases to center, and four swords in saltire, points to center, sable

His name was registered 04/2009 via the East. His device, Or, four helmets affronty in cross bases to center and four swords in saltire points to center sable, was returned at the same time:

This device is returned for violating Section VII.7.a of the Rules for Submission, which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." While a few recognized the barbutes affronty immediately, commenters were otherwise unanimous in being unable to identify the helmets. Some cited the fact that the helms are affronty as the problem, others that the helmets appear to have no back, since the eyeslot is tinctured identically to the field. Since this depiction of helmets was not readily recognizable by a significant portion of the college, the depiction is not registerable.

The device has been redrawn to improve identifiability of the helms.


[OC&M] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 1990.