Lillia de Vaux

July 9, 2010

Unto the East Kingdom College of Heralds and all others who do read this letter, greetings from Lillia de Vaux, Eastern Crown Herald on this feast day of Saint Agilifus!

This is the Letter of Decisions for the Internal Letter of Intent dated May 22, 2010. It contains submissions received before that date and has 10 numbered items. Text in boldface is quoted or summarized from the ILoI, and my comments follow in normal type.

1: Angharad verch Rees - Resub Device Change forwarded

Sable, four double-pointed knitting needles fretted in mascle argent

Old Item: Quarterly azure and argent all goutty counterchanged, a rose purpure barbed and seeded proper, to be retained.

Her name and a badge, (Fieldless) A goutte quarterly azure and argent, were registered in 03/2008 via the East. Her current device was registered in 04/2003 via the East under the holding name Angharad of Anglespur. Her prior submission was a change of device to Argent, a fess argent fimbriated and fretty purpure, and was returned on the 04/2009 LoAR for using an argent fess on an argent field, and for lack of documentation for the use of fretwork between and conjoined to two ordinaries. The device has been completely redesigned; however, a possible X.5 conflict was brought up during the design phase: Teceangl Bach (12/2000, An Tir), (Fieldless) A mascle argent. Teceangl is already aware.

Commenters were still unsure if this is a visual conflict, so we're sending it up for Wreath to make the call.

2: Damiana d'Avignon - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Argent, three gillyflowers purpure slipped and leaved and a border vert

Damiana is found in Elsbeth Anne Roth, "16th Century Spanish Names" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/spanish/index.html), with Damiana de Jerez dated to 1560 (IV.82). It is also found in Italy in 1427, according to Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2816. d'Avignon is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2970, which states that it was found in 13th century Occitan literature as <Avinho>, <Avignon>, <Avinoun>, and <Avinhon>. Since the place name starts with a vowel, the preposition elides, i.e., <d'Avignon>. The combination of Provençal/Occitan and Spanish is registerable, but is one step from period practice [Adhemar de Villarquamada, 12/2007, A-East]. Note that the potential temporal disparity between the citations for the 16th century given name and the 13th century Spanish byname; this is a potential second step from period practice. No ruling has been made for the combination of Italian and Provençal/Occitan, but Italian in combination with Catalan [Maienca da Sorrento, 07/2006, A-Atlantia], French [Tessa Cheval, 11/2000, A-East], or Spanish [Helena Seren de Luna, 08/2001, A-Atenveldt] is registerable with a step from period practice. As such, it is possible that the the 15th century Italian instance of the given name would be registerable with only one step from period practice, for the language combination.

Commenters thought that the name was sufficiently different from Diana d'Avignon, registered in January of 1991 (via the East).

3: Duvianus filius Griffini - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Quarterly gules and azure, in pale three griffins courant Or

Duvianus is the name of one of two saints purportedly sent to King Lucius of Britain by Pope Eleutherius. This saint is also known as Damianus, Dyfan, and Deruvianus (W. Smith and H. Wace, A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines, pp. 784, 817, 913; http://books.google.com/books?id=Lf8ZAAAAYAAJ). Duvianus is also identified as one of the two legates sent to King Lucius in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain, written c. 1136 (English translation: http://books.google.com/books?id=rWO8ixo-kLEC; see p. 124). This is also discussed in Schafer Williams, "Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Canon Law" (Speculum 1952;27(2):184-90; http://www.jstor.org/pss/2854492), and in James P. Carley, Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian Tradition, p. 444 (http://books.google.com/books?id=UI93dKBwWdMC). The Problem Name Project article "Concerning the Names Morgan, Morgana, Morgaine, Muirghein, Morrigan, and the Like" (http://medievalscotland.org/problem/names/morgan.shtml) notes that Geoffrey of Monmouth used the name <Duvianus> as his rendering of the name of a local saint, although the written sources he used probably spelled the name <Dubianus>. The submitter believes that, given both the saint's name allowance and the literary name allowance, <Duvianus> is a reasonable given name. filius Griffini is found in R&W, s.n. Griffin, and in Bardsley, s.n. Griffin, which list Osbertus filius Griffini (1153-68) and Tudor fil. Griffini (tempus Edward I, who reigned 1272-1307), respectively.

The device is clear of William Edwin de Gisors (June of 1992 via An Tir), Quarterly gules and counter-ermine, in pale three griffons passant contourny Or. There is a CD for changing the tincture of half of the field, and another for the change in facing of the griffins. There is no CD for passant vs. courant.

4: Ellice de Valles - New Name forwarded

The name was submitted as Ellice de Voules. The client requests authenticity for 15th century English/French. Sound ("ehl-leese") most important. Ellice is a hypocoristic or diminutive form of Elizabeth listed in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/reaneyintro.html), dated 1319. In R&W, it is found s.n. Ellis. de Voules appears in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Chastenay, 1448-1457" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/chastenay.html), as the byname of Jaquet de Voules (1456). There is no step from period from practice for the combination of English and French.

The given name wasn't found in her desired century, but the submitter requested that the given name not be changed. Due to the changes to her husband's submitted name (Estienne de Valles), her byname was changed to match. de Valles is found in Cateline de la Mor, "16th c Norman Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/cateline/norman16.html).

5: Estienne de Valles - New Name forwarded

The name was submitted as Estienne de Voules. The submitter desires a male name. No major changes. The client requests authenticity for 15th century French. Sound ("dee vohl-ay") most important. Estienne is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2899 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2899), which states that it was the sixth most common masculine name in a study of names from Paris from 1421-1428. It is also found in 15th century Bordeaux, Roubaix, and in Néchin (in Artois, near the modern Belgian-French border) in 1601. de Voules appears in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Chastenay, 1448-1457" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/chastenay.html), as the byname of Jaquet de Voules (1456).

Since the desired sound would not be possible with the submitted name, the submitter was contacted to confirm what was most important to him. He decided to change to de Valles. This name is found in Cateline de la Mor, "16th c Norman Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/cateline/norman16.html). The name was thought to be clear of Etienne de Valance, registered in November of 1981 (Caid).

6: Isolda Fairamay - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Azure, a gore or and a mermaid proper, crined and maintaining a trident Or

The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Spelling most important. Isolda is found in Alfred Kolatch, Dictionary of First Names (New York: Jonathon David Publishers, Inc., 1980, p. 384). This source states that it is a variant spelling of Isolde, the entry on which reads "Probably, from the Old High German, meaning 'to rule.' Also, possibly from the Celtic, meaning 'the fair one.' Isolda is a variant spelling. In medieval legend, an Irish princess loved by Tristram." Isolde also is found in Adrian Room, Cassel Dictionary of First Names (London: Cassell Publishers Ltd., 1998, pp. 151-2). This source states that it "comes from the Old French name Iseult (Yseult), itself from a Celtic root meaning 'fair'. (The Welsh equivalent is Esyllt.) It has long been in select English-speaking use." This book also repeats the assertion that a variant spelling is Isolda. Lastly, the submitted spelling is a header form in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyHZ.html), which states that it is from the Old French Iseut, Isalt, Isaut, Ysole, perh. <CG *Ishild. The submitted spelling appears between 1200 and 1430. It is also found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Feminine names from Devon, 1238" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/devonfem1238.html). Fairamay 'fair friend' is found in R&W, s.n. Fairbody, dated 1327.

Bardsley, s.nn. Gilbert and Goodbarne gives <Isolda> as a given name dated to 1273 and 1379. Withycombe, s.n. Isolda, includes the submitted spelling, dated 1199-31, 1273, 1346, and 1379. Commenters thought that the name was sufficiently different from <Idonea Fairamay>, registered in December of 2004 via the East. For the device, commenters felt that it was clear of Ondine Patru de Limantour, registered in October 1976, Azure, a mermaid proper, holding in both hands a scarf, striped longitudinally gules and purpure, arched over her head. There is a CD for the gore, and a second for what appears to be a sustained scarf.

7: Lucas Beekaert - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per bend azure and vert, a dragon couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, in base a bee Or

The submitter desires a male name. No major changes. Lucas is found in Luana de Grood, "Flemish Names from Bruges" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/given-list.html), dated 1400-1550. Beekaert is found in the same article (http://www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/byname-list1.html), also dated 1400-1550.

The device is clear of Valina del Moreno (August of 1983 via the West), Per saltire azure and sable, a dragon couchant, wings elevated and addorsed, head erect, argent, breathing flames to chief proper. There is one CD for the changes to the field, and another for the addition of a secondary charge.

8: Marietta da Firenze - New Badge forwarded

Per pale azure and gules, a die Or

Her name was registered in 05/2004, and a device, Per pale azure and gules, an orle of dice Or, in 09/2005, both via the East. Another badge, Per pale vert and Or, a badger rampant sable marked argent, was registered 02/2010, also via the East.

9: Megan ni Phádraig - New Alternate Name forwarded

Mæva in eldra

The name was submitted as Maeva in eldra. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. The client requests authenticity for time period. Language and culture (9th century Irish or Viking) most important. The Society Name listed on the form was 'Megan ni Padraig'. Assuming that it is the same person, the primary name and her device were registered 04/1998 via Atlantia. Her device, Argent, a dragon statant, on a chief embattled azure three mullets argent, was reblazoned 05/1998. Mæva or Mævu is a feminine given name meaning 'seagull', as stated in Haukur Þorgeirsson, "Nafnasafnið: Icelandic and Heathen Names" (http://www.irminsul.org/arc/012ht.html#m). This article states that some names may have been borrowed from other languages at a later time. Thus, it could have been borrowed from the Irish Maeve. This name is from Ronan Coghlan et al, Book of Irish Names: First, Family & Place Names (PCA, p. 26), s.n. Maeve. The entry states that it is, "The name of the legendary queen of Connacht, who led an invasion of Ulster and was held at bay by Cuchulain until help arrived". in eldra is the expected feminine form of inn eldri 'elder', found in from Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html). This article states that, "[T]he feminine forms will use the definite article in rather than inn, and will end in a instead of i, generally." Lastly, the submission notes that "[T]he cities of Dublin and Limerick give ample evidence of period contact and 'borrowing' by the Vikings of the Irish."

According to the article cited, <Maevu> is the genitive form of the name, not just an alternate spelling. OC&M mentions Maeve as a "more acceptable anglicisation" of Medb which is "now very popular". The entry says that Medb/Meadhbh is "primarily a female name, being one of the twenty most popular names in later medieval Ireland, but it occurs as a male name in the early period." It was noted that the cited website on Icelandic names has Mæva with an ash, not 'ae'. Commenters also noted that Coghlan et al. is not an acceptable source, per the Administrative Handbook's Appendix H. Fortunately, the citation of the Old Norse cognate of the name meant that a better Irish source did not need to be found. Commenters also found examples of names combining Irish and Old Norse in period, including <Amhlaeibh Cuaran> in the Annals of the Four Masters (AFM938.5.2), <Amhlaibh mac Illulbh> in Chronicon Scotorum (CS975.2), <Donndubhan mac Imhar> in the Annals of the Four Masters (AFM995.2), <Dubhgall mac Amhlaeibh> in the Annals of the Four Masters (AFM1013.2), <Duibchenn mac Ivarr> in the Annals of the Four Masters (AFM975.2), <Gilla Ciarain mac Glun Iairn> in the Annals of Ulster (AU1014.2.2), <Gilla-Padraic mac Ivarr> in the Annals of Tigernach (ATig.RC17.982.2), and <Glun-Iarainn mac Olaf> in the Annals of Tigernach (ATig.RC17.982.2). These examples are available from http://www.ucc.ie/celt/ and in Appendix II of Valante, Mary A. "Urbanization and Economy in Viking-Age Ireland." Ph.D. Thesis, Penn State University, August 1998.

10: Randwen de Motherwell - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Vert, on a fess between three triquetrae Or three roses proper

Randwen is a constructed name based on the Old English elements Rand- and -wen, both found in Searle. Rand- appears on p. 395 in such names as Randolf (899), Randthryth and Randrud (1083), Randwulf, Randulf, Randulfus, and Rannulfus. -wen is on p. 482 as a feminine name suffix, in names such as Wulfwen (p. 521), Oswen (p. 379), Saewen (p. 408), and Beorhtwen (p. 97). According to pp. xxii-xxv of the introduction in R&W, "Post-Conquest Survival of Old English Personal Names", Old English given names continued to be found in England through at least the fourteenth century, and well into the use of Middle English. On p. xxiii, R&W note that, "[a] number of personal names which are not recorded in Old English after the eighth or ninth centuries reappear in Middle English." Motherwell is a header in Black that is described as a surname deriving from a place name in Lanarkshire. An example is John de Motherwell (1244). The byname can also be supported as a contructed place name in English. Ekwall, s.n. Motherby, includes Mothersby (1317) and Motherby (1323), and it is stated that the name derives from 'Mothir's by' based on the Old Danish personal name Mothir or the Old Swedish (Old Norse?) personal name Moðir. Ekwall, s.n. well, notes that it is a common second element in place names, with examples found s.nn. Digswell, Epwell, Eriswell, and Greetwell: Dikesneswell (1198), Digeneswella (1209-19), Dichelesuuelle (DB), Eppewell (1206), Eoppanwyllan broc (956), Hereswella (DB), Ereswell (1183), Evereswell (1249), Grentewelle (DB), Gretwella (c. 1115), and Gretewelle (1120-2). Based on those examples, the place name Motherwell or Motherswell derived from 'Mothir's well" seems reasonable.

English/Scots names are registerable with no step from period practice. Old English/Scots is not registerable.

Standard Bibliography:

[Bardsley] Bardsley, Charles. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames.

[Black] Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland.

[Ekwall] Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names.

[OC&M] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names.

[R&W] Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames, 3rd edn.

[Searle] Searle, William George. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.

[Withycombe] Withycombe, E.G. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd edn.