Lillia de Vaux

To the East Kingdom College of Heralds, and our friends far and wide, does Lillia de Vaux, Eastern Crown Herald, give greetings!

Now that the holidays are well and truly over, and we've all enjoyed the festivities of Twelfth Night, it is time to turn once again to return to our duties as heralds. This letter contains the decisions for the Nov. 25, 2010 Internal Letter of Intent. There are 12 numbered items on this letter: 5 names, 9 devices, and 2 badges.

Thank you to this month's commenters: Alys Mackyntoich, Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Gawain of Miskbridge, Reinholdt von Trollenhagen, Rohese de Dinan, Robert Fairfax, Ian Raven of Tadcaster, and Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa.

1: Alesia de Maris of Ravenstar - New Badge returned

Or, a raven proper

Her name was registered 08/1988 via the East. Her device, Argent, a raven close, on a chief sable three mullets Or, was registered 12/1987 via the East.

Unfortunately, this badge must be returned for multiple conflicts. It conflicts with Isabella de Corbie (05/1999, Middle), Or, a corbie close sable, a bordure embattled per pale sable and gules. As a corbie is a raven, the only CD is for removing the bordure. It conflicts with Leona of Remington (03/1989, Ansteorra), Or, a Cornish chough sable, beaked and membered gules, maintaining in its dexter talon a chalice, within a bordure vert, for a similar reason. Another conflict is Alexsander von Mausheim (10/2005, An Tir), Or, in pale a raven maintaining a reed pen inverted perched atop an anvil sable, with one CD for removing the anvil. Against Dafydd Wallraven (06/1998, Lochac), Per fess argent and purpure masoned argent, in chief a raven close sable, there is only a CD for the change of the field, as the position of the raven in Dafydd's armory is forced. Against Suzanne of Ravenhill (06/2000, West), Or, a raven contourny sable maintaining a broken tilting spear banded sable and gules, there is only a CD for the orientation of the raven. There is only a CD for changing the number of ravens vs. Cigfran o Gaer Walch (02/1997, East), Or, six ravens close sable.

As ravens are given no difference from other raptors there are conflicts with Xartsaga Khara (04/2002, Caid), Or, in pale a falcon sable perched upon a scimitar inverted fesswise gules, Holy Roman Empire (important non-SCA armory, 12/1994), Or, a double-headed eagle displayed sable (sometimes crowned, sometimes also nimbed Or), Germany (important non-SCA armory, 12/1994), Or, an eagle displayed sable, and Serlo of Litchfield, Gyronny gules and Or, a vulture close sable.

The badge possibly conflicts with Lughaid Cnuachd Dharaich mac Aonghuis Dhuibh (10/1995, Caid), Or, a raven regardant sable perched on a whelk fesswise reversed azure and between in chief two crescents gules. There is a CD for removing the crescents, but whether there is one for removing the whelk depends on whether it is a maintained or sustained charge. There is also a potential conflict with Gaucelm de Chambonnieres (10/1996, Drachenwald), Or, an owl sable and a base rayonny gules. There's a CD for removing the base, but commenters weren't sure if there is a CD between a raven and an owl.

2: Bran ap Rees - New Device forwarded

Argent, a human face crined and bearded of oak leaves vert, fructed, and in chief three ravens proper

His name was registered 11/2007 via the East. Note the following precedent concerning registerability of foliate faces:

[returning a charge blazoned as a mans head cabossed crined and bearded of leaves] This is being returned for non-reproducability. If the submitter had drawn what was blazoned we would consider registering it. However, the blazon does not adequately describe the emblazon. While the head could be described as bearded of leaves, we could come up with no heraldic way to describe the hair - crined of leaves does not describe it. (Shane McNeil de la Forest, 9/96 p. 13)

However, a similar motif has been registered more recently:

Blazoned on the LoI as a wildman's head, a wildman or savage is a period heraldic charge that looks little like the charge submitted here: a wildmans head would be a normal human head, bearded, wearing a wreath of leaves. Some commenters suggested this was a greenman's head. The term greenman was coined in 1939 for a medieval artistic motif. There are period examples online (such as at http://www.chrispye-woodcarving.com/greenman/gm_index.html) that look nothing like this submission -- or each other. Some don't even look like human faces. As there is no fixed form (and therefore no heraldic form) for this motif, a greenman's head is not registerable per se. However, as emblazoned the head can be blazoned as a human face crined and bearded of foliage and we will so register it. (Santiago Carrillo de Guadalupe, 03/2006)

As the submitters concept art (well, tattoo...) specifically used oak leaves with acorns interspersed, these have been specified in the blazon. The emblazon is not an exact depiction of an extant piece, but is largely based upon depictions of foliate faces in the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt , c. 1230 (MS. 19093 French Collection, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; seen at http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Villard_de_Honnecourt_-_Sketchbook_-_10.jpg). The leaf type has been altered, and the curling has been eliminated so that the leaves were not depicted in trian aspect. Although there is variation in appearance of extant foliate faces, the variation is typically in the amount of leaves. The overall effect is the same despite this variation: a face made mostly of leaves. As such, a competent artist should be able to reproduce something that is reasonably close to this depiction, especially as the type of leaf and the presence of acorns have been blazoned.

Commenters noted that Santiago's emblazon showed more of the human face, and was more recognizable. However, I am forwarding this to Wreath to make the call. A possible conflict was noted: John of Woodwose Hall (01/1973), Argent, a mans head couped affronty, crowned with leaves and antlers, all vert. There is one CD for the ravens, but it is not known if the antlers were large enough to grant a second CD.

3: Bryan mac Dhughaill an Boghadair - New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) On a trefoil slipped vert three hearts bases to center argent

His name and device, Vert, a crossbow bent palewise and on a chief argent, three shamrocks slipped vert, were registered 02/1985 via the East. He also has a badge, Vert, a crossbow palewise within a bordure argent, registered 04/1990 via the East. This submission is clear of Ireland (important non-SCA badges, protected 12/1994), (Fieldless) A shamrock vert and (Fieldless) A shamrock vert crowned proper, with one CD for the fieldless bribe and another for the addition of the tertiary charges. It is clear of Kiara Loftus (badge, 12/1998, Outlands), (Fieldless) On a shamrock vert a candle argent enflamed Or, and Eógan Cú Chaille (badge, 01/1997, Caid), (Fieldless) On a shamrock vert, a compass star Or, with one CD for fieldlessness, and another for the changes in type, number, and tincture of the tertiaries. It is clear of Myles of the Shamrock (05/1973), Argent, a shamrock vert, for the same reasons as Ireland. It is clear of David Lorkin ODea (device, 11/2001, Meridies), Or, a shamrock vert charged on each leaf with an arrow its point to center Or, with one CD for fieldlessness, and another for the changes in type and tincture of the tertiaries. Vs. Rioghbhardan MacInnes the Lame (device, 11/1989, An Tir), Or, on a shamrock slipped vert a flute fesswise Or, all within a bordure vert, one CD for fieldlessness, one for the multiple changes to the tertiaries.

The badge was reblazoned from a shamrock to a trefoil slipped, as it was noted in commentary that the emblazon lacked the heart-shaped leaves of a shamrock [Brian Ó hUilliam, 01/2008].

4: Christopher Stanley - Resub Device forwarded

Azure, on a chief embattled argent three thistles proper

His name was on the Easts 08/31/2010 xLoI. A prior device submission, Azure, three cranes argent each maintaining a rapier Or and on a chief embattled argent three thistles proper, was on the same letter, but was withdrawn by the submitter.

This device conflicts with Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme (11/1990, Caid), Azure, on a chief embattled argent a dragon couchant azure winged sable and Azure, on a chief embattled argent a dragon couchant azure winged sable, as an augmentation the dragon maintaining between its forefeet an escutcheon azure charged with four crescents conjoined in saltire, horns outward argent (11/1995, Caid), with only one CD for the cumulative changes to the tertiary charge group. A letter of permission to conflict has been obtained for the first one, and Bruce has agreed to provide the second. In the meantime, we are sending it up for further commentary by the College of Arms.

Christopher's device is field-primary armory. As such, it is clear of Margat Catte (03/2010, Middle), Vert fretty, on a chief embattled argent a domestic cat courant sable, and Dorothea van der Zee (09/1992, West), Azure fretty, on a chief wavy argent three tulips gules, slipped and leaved vert, by X.1, removal of the primary charge.

It is clear of William Bauer (02/1997, Atenveldt), Azure, on a chief argent an arrow reversed sable, and Julian Goodwyn (12/1996, Atlantia), Azure, on a chief indented argent, three hearts gules, for changing to an embattled chief, and for making multiple changes to the tertiaries. Against Gwynethe Glaslyn (04/2006, Ansteorra), Pean, on a chief dovetailed argent, three bunches of grapes purpure leaved vert; Donal MacMurtrie (03/1985, Atenveldt), Per chevron gules and ermine, on a chief embattled argent three mullets gules; and Margaret Wolseley (06/2009, Atlantia), Vert, on a chief embattled argent three roundels azure, there is one CD for changing the field, and another for the change(s) to the tertiaries. Lastly, it is clear of Alasdair MacDhonnchaid (08/1988, East), Lozengy argent and vert, on a chief embattled Or, three thistles, slipped and leaved, proper, for changing the field and the tincture of the chief.

5: Ciarán Ó Tarpaigh - New Name forwarded

Ciarán is a header in in OC&M, and is described as the name of 26 saints. It is also found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Ciaran.shtml), found in years 512-1061. It is the Old Irish Gaelic and Middle Irish Gaelic nominative form of the name. Ó Tarpaigh is found in Woulfe, s.n. Ó Tarpa. The submitter is willing to change the surname to a more period spelling if the submitted form is modern. Note that the name also is found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada, "16th & 17th Century Anglicized Irish Surnames from Woulfe" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/Woulfe/SortedByAnglicizedRoot_T.shtml), in which it is stated that O Tarpy is the Anglicized Irish form, tempus Elizabeth I to James I. As such, there should be a corresponding Gaelic form from that time.

The given name is a saint's name, so there should be no step from period practice for temporal disparity. Indeed, the name Ciaran is found in the Martyrology of Donegal, which is a 19th century English and Gaelic translation of a text completed in 1630 (http://books.google.com/books?id=clR5GAXu0V8C, pp. 376-7). The names in this list were compiled from an earlier martyrology, part of the 12th C Book of Leinster by one of the Four Masters (see http://writingirishhistory.eu/exhibition/bookofleinster.shtml). As such, the fifteen saints by this name were certainly known in the 16th and early 17th centuries, and the submitted spelling would be a plausible Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name.

6: Elspeth of Shepton Mallet - Resub Device forwarded

Vert, a bend sinister between a squirrel contourny maintaining an acorn and eight thimbles in annulo Or

Her name is on the Easts 10-30-2010 iLoI. Her original device submission, Vert, a bend sinister Or between a squirrel contourny maintaining an acorn proper and eight thimbles in annulo Or, was on the same letter, but was withdrawn by the submitter.

The device is clear of Muireann inghean uí Rodáin (04/2004, An Tir), Vert, a bend sinister between an eagle rising and a sheaf of arrows Or; Ailis inghean Mhairghrege (07/2004, Caid), Vert, a bend sinister between two dragons heads erased Or; Kennyth Landor of Skye (05/1983, Atlantia), Vert, a bend sinister Or between a decrescent argent and a mullet pierced Or; and Áedán de Brisco (07/2004, Caid), Vert, a bend sinister between a dragons head erased and a dogs head erased Or. All of these have CDs for the changes in type and number of the secondary charges. Against Silence de Cherbourg (02/2003, Æthelmearc), Vert, a bend sinister between six fleurs-de-lis Or, it was thought that there would be a CD for changing the type of secondary charge, and a second for changing the arrangement from three and three around the bend to one and eight.

Heather Rose de GordounHeather Rose de Gordoun

7: Heather Rose de Gordoun - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Quarterly azure and sable, four coneys courant addorsed two and two argent

Heather is the submitters legal name on her drivers license, as attested by Mistress Alys (Elmet Herald). Rose is a surname found in Black, s.n. Rose, which states that a <William Rose> was a charter witness in Inverness, c. 1360. de Gordoun is found in a Latin record of the proceedings of the Scottish Parliament, dated 1441, which refers to a <Alexandro de Setoun domino de Gordoun>. A document fragment written in Scots from 1471 refers to <Cristiane of Gordoune>. The submitter prefers the spelling without the terminal -e. Both records can be found at The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, K.M. Brown et al., eds. (St. Andrews, 2007-2010), http://www.rps.ac.uk/.

Heather is found as a surname in 1633 (Bardsley, s.n. Heather), and, thus, should not be considered obtrusively modern. As surnames were occasionally used as given names in the latter half of the 16th century and early 17th century in England (see the introduction to Withycombe), this name fits this pattern. The precedent [Alton of Grimfells, 04/2010, East] specifically states that such a surname must be documented as a 16th century English surname form; however, considering that this practice also occurred in the early 17th century, the precedent should also apply to this submission. We note, however, that Ekwall, s.n. Heather states it is a place name in Leicestershire, with <Hethere> dated 1209-35 and 1276. As such, a locative surname based on it would not be implausible.

The device is clear of Gealán mac Bheathan (registered in 11/1997, Caid), Quarterly azure and sable, four swords in cross throughout, hilts to center, Or, and Johanna le Walkere (07/2004, Middle), Quarterly azure and sable, four quatrefoils argent, both by X.2. It is clear of Rodrigo Hernandez de Toledo (09/1998, Atlantia), Quarterly azure and sable, a bordure argent by X.1. Lastly, it is clear of Nikon Vasileev (03/2004, Calontir), Quarterly azure and Or, four coneys couchant counterchanged, with a CD for changing the tincture of half of the field, and another for changing the tincture of half of the primary charge group. There is possibly another for changing the orientation of half of the rabbits.

The original forms had the rabbits in a posture somewhere between courant and salient. The device was redrawn with the submitter's permission in order to correct this problem.

8: Isabella Altoviti - New Name Change forwarded

Old Item: Isabella la Curiosa, to be released. The submitter desires a female name. The client requests authenticity for the Italian Renaissance. Language/culture (Italian Renaissance) most important. Her original name and a device, Azure, an eagle argent and a bordure argent semy of crescents azure, were registered 04/2003 via the East. Isabella is a feminine given name found four times in Arval Benicoeur, "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto/). It is found in Juliana de Luna, "Names from Sixteenth Century Venice" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/16thcvenice.html). It is also grandfathered to the submitter. Altovita was the byname of <Bindo Altoviti> (1483-1520), a wealthy Florentine banker who was painted by Raphael in 1515 (http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg20/gg20-12131.html).

Commenters questioned whether this was a conflict with Isabella d'Altavilla (04/2005, Caid).

9: Manuel de Mirguelo - Resub Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Or, a rose sable barbed and seeded proper and on a chief vert an increscent Or

This is a resubmission of Manuel De Miércolas, returned on the 09/2006 LoAR (East) because no evidence for the byname could be found. Manuel is a masculine given name found twice in Juliana de Luna, "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/MensGivenAlpha.html), and three times in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Spanish Names from Jaén, 1495" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/spanish/jaen1495.html). The alternate spelling Manual is found once in Aryanhwys article (ibid.). de Mirguelo is part of a place name, <Bahia de Mirguelo> Bay of Mirguelo found in a 1539 map by Gutierrez of what is now the southeastern US. It is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2822 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2822).

The device is clear of Angharad ferch Tangwystl (09/1995, Middle), Or, a rose sable barbed and seeded proper, a chief enarched sable mullety Or. As a plain chief and a chief enarched are artistic variants of each other, there is no CD between them [Ottar Hrafnsson, 05/1998]. However, we have a CD for changing the tincture of the chief and another for the cumulative changes to the tertiary charge group.

10: Marguerite inghean Lachlainn - Resub Device forwarded

Vert, on a bend sinister argent three mushrooms palewise azure and in canton a coronet Or

Her name and a badge were registered on the 06/2010 LOAR (East). Her original device submission, Vert, on a bend sinister argent three mushrooms palewise azure, was returned on the Easts 12/2009 Letter of Decision for conflict with the device of Leslie the Brown (06/1986, Ansteorra), Vert, on a bend sinister argent a Hermit Thrush close proper. [Hylocichla guttata]. A second attempt, Vert, on a bend argent three mushrooms palewise azure, also had a conflict that was found in kingdom commentary: Olaf the Maedi-Ogre (03/1975), Vert, on a bend argent a battle-axe gules. A coronet was added to the original version of the device to clear that conflict. The submitter was made a countess in 09/2010, and is entitled to bear a coronet.

As most countesses don't tend to stay that way, I have not specifically blazoned the type of coronet in case she needs to upgrade it. And, for completeness, the inclusion of a coronet in canton is found in the Wapenboek Beyeren, fol. 011v (http://www.kb.nl/bladerboek/wapenboek/browse/page_011v.xml), c. 1405, in the arms of "ly grant Mylly".

11: Rainillt Leia de Bello Marisco - Resub Device Change forwarded

Sable, a fess engrailed Or between three fleurs-de-lys and a swan naiant contourny argent

Old Item: Vert, two coneys combattant argent, to be retained. Her name and original device were registered 05/2003 (East). This is a resubmission of Per chevron sable semy-de-lys argent and sable, a chevron Or and in base a swan naiant argent, which was returned on the 04/2010 LoAR (East) because the background of the semy was the same tincture as the other part of the divided field. This is a complete redesign.

12: Shadia al-Zahra' - New Name & New Device forwarded

Argent, a chevron pean between two suns and a butterfly gules

The name was submitted as Shadiyah al-Zahra'. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Sound (unspecified) most important. Shadiyah 'singer' is a given name that was purportedly found in al-Jafaris "Muslim Names", p. 23, according to an email from Da'ud ibn Auda to Elisabeth de Rossignol. No further information was provided, and a copy of the email was not included. Da'ud was contacted to try to fill in this information. He stated that the name was found in that book as a feminine given name, but that this book provides no dated forms. As such, it is likely that the name is modern. However, a similar masculine name Shadi; is found in period: <al-Hajj Sharaf al-Din Musa b. Shadi al-Turkamani>, dated from the 14th or 15th century as far as I can tell [Michael Winter & Amalia Levanoni, The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society (http://books.google.com/books?id=NBBMJJTEoKMC; p. 307], <Amir Qawam al-Din Shadi>, 1404 [Beatrice Forbes Manz, Power, Politics and Religion in Timurid Iran (http://books.google.com/books?id=BfkpHz9q_RMC; p. 108], and <al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Dunya wal-Din Abul Muzaffar Yusuf Ibn Ayyub Ibn Shadi al-Kurdi> (a.k.a. Saladin, d. 1193) [Christopher Tyeman, Gods War: A New History of the Crusades (http://books.google.com/books?id=ULDUopVCVPoC; p. 350]. Although Da'ud's article "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm) states that masculine names ending in -i can be feminized by adding -iyya(h), he indicated via email that the expected feminization is Shadia(h), and that it was found this way in Slahuddin Ahmed, A Dictionary of Muslim Names, p. 326, albeit undated. As the masculine form can be found in period, he thinks that this name is registerable. The addition of -a(h) is the normal method of feminization for Arabic names, according to Da'ud's article, so this seems to be an exception to the rule about how to feminize masculine names that end in -i. The initial consulting herald has indicated that the submitter will accept Shadia, as that was the spelling she originally wanted. She had changed the spelling because of the successful registration of Shadiyah al-Tawilah (01/2000, An Tir).

al-Zahra' 'the radiant' is a woman's byname found in Juliana de Luna, "Andalusian Names: Arabs in Spain" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/andalusia.html). It is not found, however, in the updated article "Arabic Names from al-Andalus" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/alandalus/), but this appears to have been an inadvertent omission, according to Juliana. She also stated that it is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2772 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2772), which states:

<al-Zahra> the radiant, which we would transcribe as <al-Zahraa>, is a byname traditionally given to Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Mohammed. It was also the byname of a woman in 10th century Cordoba (4), and we found an Arabic concubine in Spain with this byname. (9) We believe it is a reasonable byname to be used by a medieval Arabic speaking woman, but we should warn you that in the past the SCA College of Arms has been unwilling to register this, believing it to be unique to Fatima. (5) Please note that in front of certain letters, the sound of the consonant in <al> "the" changes. In particular, before a Z it is pronounced z; so the name is probably best transcribed as <az-Zahraa>.

(4) author not cited, "Heritage Sites In Europe: Cordoba, Cordoba Province, Andalucia" (WWW, accessed 1/11/04), http://www.heritagesites.eu.com/spain/cordoba.htm, (5) Laurel Sovereign of Arms Letter of Acceptances and Returns, February 2002, Returns, Meridies, Zubaydah az-Zahra. http://sca.org/heraldry/loar/2002/02/02-02lar.html, (9) Manuela Mari/n _Mujeres en al-A/ndalus_ (_Estudios Onoma/sticos-Biogra/ficos de al-Andalus, No. 11_). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cienti/ficas, Madrid, 2000. pp. 79-80

The prior return cited in that letter stated that the byname could not be registered because it was unique to Fatima [Zubaydah az-Zahra, 02/2002]:

The byname al-Zahra is pronounced az-Zahra, but it is always written al-Zahra. However, this byname has only been documented as a byname referring to Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad. Lacking evidence that this byname is not unique to Fatima, it is a unique byname and is not registerable.

However, an Andalusian concubine by this name was the namesake of the city of Mad{i-}nat al-Zahr{a-}, built by caliph al-N{a-}sir, according to the historian al-Maqqar{i-} (c. 1591-1632) in The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green Andalusia and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan ud-Din ibn ul-Khattib (a.k.a. , Analectes sur l'histoire et la littérature des Arabes d'Espagne). Al-Maqqar{i-} was citing another writer, Muhy{i-}al-D{i-}n Ibn al-Arab{i-}, "who said that he heard it directly from one of the learned men of Cordoba" (Analectes, I: 344). [In: D. Fairchild Ruggles, Gardens, Landscape, & Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006)]. Considering the above, I believe that the name should be given the benefit of the doubt on the basis that it is found as a byname for a woman other than Fatima, and that it is found in period, albeit apocryphal, literature as the name of a normal human.

If Shadiyah cannot be justified as a given name, the submitter would like Khadija al-Shadiyah al-Zahra as her second choice, with a wholly Arabic form of Khadija al-Zahra, called Shadiyah as a last choice. The submitter is aware that, at this time, "X called Y" names are only registerable in French, Latin, and German [Madeleine Moinet dit Boismenu, 07/1996], and that to use it we'd have to (1) document this pattern in Arabic, (2) find out the proper construction in that language, and (3) document Shadiyah as a given name. (And, if #3 was accomplished, we wouldn't need this option!) For the second (and third) choice, Khadija(h) is a feminine ism found in Da'ud ibn Auda, "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm). al-Shadiyah is intended as an occupational nisba meaning the singer, using the pattern found in Juliana de Luna, "Arabic Names from al-Andalus" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/alandalus/). Examples are <al-`Aṭṭār> 'perfumer' (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/alandalus/mascnick.html) and <al-Labbāna> 'milk-maid' (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/alandalus/femnick.html).

As stated above, the name was changed to better match the documentation and to better conform to the submitter's wishes, as confirmed by email.

Standard bibliography:

[Bardsley] Bardsley, Charles. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames.

[Black] Black, George F. The Surnames of Scotland.

[Ekwall] Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names.

[OC&M] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names.

[Woulfe] Woulfe, Patrick. Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish Names and Surnames.