Lillia de Vaux

June 29, 2011

Greetings to the East Kingdom College of Heralds! This is the Letter of Decisions for the May 17, 2011 Internal Letter of Intent. The original text from the iLoI is bolded, and is followed by my comments in unbolded text.

Thank you to the following commenters: Alys Mackyntoich, Magnus von Lubeck, Jeanne Marie Lacroix, Tanczos Istvan, Brunissende Dragonette, Gawain of Miskbridge, and Gunnvor silfraharr. We couldn't do it without you, and we appreciate the time and effort that you spend on the College's behalf.

Congratulations to the Barony of the Bridge for securing the bid for the 2012 Known World Heraldic and Scribal Symposium! I hope that the East's College can truly shine next year, and I look forward to attending.

Yours in Service,
Lillia de Vaux Eastern Crown Herald

1: Adalfara Drache - New Name Change forwarded

Old Item: Edel Feurer Drache, to be released. Her name was registered 01/2011 (East). Adalfara is a constructed Old English name using elements from documented names. Searle, pp. 3 and 531, has Adal- as a prefix, and the examples <Adalard> (c. 1005), <Adalbald> (c. 650), <Adalbert> (c. 690 and d. 997), <Adalbold> (d. 1027), and <Adalarius> (c. 750). -fara appears as a suffix (ibid., pp. 240, 553). Examples are <Widfara> (tempus Harold I - presumably Harold of England, c. 1015-1040) and <Irfara> (tempus "Eadw I" Eadwig? - if so, 941?-959), found on pp. 386 and 320, respectively. The submitter is aware that the given name might be constructed as a masculine name, but does not care. Drache is dated 1066 in R&W, s.n. Drake. Even if Drache is considered to be a patronymic byname, its use as an unmarked byname is still appropriate:

On the basis of these examples, we can conclude that unmarked patronyms based on Old English names were rare but not non-existent in the middle of the 11th century. We rule that an Old English masculine name can be used as an unmarked patronymic byname when there is evidence that the name was in use when this pattern is found, i.e., we allow it for names which were in use in the middle of the 11th century or later [Bartholomew Gospatric, 10/2008].

It was noted that bearers of names ending in -fara were masculine:

While Ceolfara is an acceptable constructed Old English given name, all evidence points to it being a masculine name. While modern English speakers are used to an -a at the end of a name indicating a feminine name (as this is usually true of Latin or Latinized names), this is not always the case in Old English. The bearers of the names we have found using the theme -fara are masculine names, and deuterothemes in Old English are rarely gender neutral. Please inform the submitter that this is a masculine name. [Ceolfara æt Mældune, May 2007, A-East]

It was also noted that PASE lists an abbess named <Fara> as appearing in Bede (http://eagle.cch.kcl.ac.uk:8080/pase/persons/index.html), which could be further support for this element. Lastly, "Names in the Lowlands before 1100" by Kees Nieuwenhuijsen (http://www.keesn.nl/names/en4_list_ele.htm) includes 261 instances of the prototheme Adal- in masculine names and 42 in feminine names, as well as fara- as a prototheme twice for men and once for women, all in Germanic names.

From the text in R&W, Drache appears to be a descriptive or occupational byname, not a patronym.

2: Cedric of Thanet - New Household Name forwarded & New Badge returned

Thanet House

Per pale argent and gules a trillium flower inverted gules leaved vert and seeded Or

No major changes. Client requests authenticity for 1425 England.
Meaning (to work with registered Society name) most important. The submitter's name was registered in 08/1989 (Atlantia). A device, Argent, a pall inverted between three trillium flowers inverted gules, leaved vert, was registered at the same time, but was reblazoned in 01/2003 (Atlantia). Thanet is a locative surname found in Mills, s.n. Thanet, where <Tanet> is dated 1086 (DB). It is also found in Ekwall, s.n. Thanet, which has the spellings <Tanatos> (730), <Tenid> (679), <Tænett> (949), <Tenet> (890), <tanet> (DB), and <Tænate> (1205). The documentation cites a 1992 precedent that if a last name could be registered, then "House <last name>" could also be registered. A later precedent states:

Submitted as House Lochleven, no documentation was provided for the household name pattern House + <place name> in Scots or English. This pattern was ruled unregisterable barring evidence for its use in period in December 2007:
The question was raised whether names of the form House + [place name] followed a pattern found in English names for groups of organized people. We have found no examples of this pattern. However, we have some examples of the pattern [place name] + [house/hall/lodge]. All examples below are from John Norden, Speculum Britanniae. The first parte an historicall, & chorographicall discription of Middlesex. Wherin are also alphabeticallie sett downe, the names of the cyties, townes, parishes hamletes, howses of name &c. W.th [sic] direction spedelie to finde anie place desired in the mappe & the distance betwene place and place without compasses. Cum priuilegio. By the trauaile and vew of Iohn Norden. Anno 1593. Names include Enfielde house (located in Enfield), Northals lodge (in Northals), and Lambeth house (near Lambeth), and Westminster Hall (in Westminster). There are several other examples based on either a territorial title or the surname of the original builder (in very few cases does the name of the listed resident match the name of the house). Examples include Augustines Lodge, Buls Lodge, Bufhoppes hall, New hall, Hendon house, Bassings hall, Heneage House, Schrewsburye house, More hall, Durham house (built by the Bishop of Durham), and Burghley house (built by Lord Burghley). Given this, we would recommend late period household names following either of these patterns [surname] + [house or hall], [surname]+s + [house, hall, or lodge], [place name] + [house, hall, or lodge]. [Sythe Blackwolfe, Calontir-R]

While the submitter does not allow major changes, he explicitly allowed the addition of the preposition of if required. We have changed the household name to House of Lochleven in order to register it. [Edward Grey of Lochleven, 07/2009, East-A]

The submitter will allow House Thanet or House of Thanet if the submitted name is not registerable. There is a SFPP for the use of a trillium.

Thanet is a place name, found in an entry in Encyclopedia Britannica. However, commenters did not think that it was important enough to protect.

This badge conflicts with the device of Deirdre ingean Dhomhnaill (Jan. 2003, Æthelmearc), Per pale sable and Or, a trillium inverted gules barbed vert. There is a single CD for changes to the field, but nothing for placement because the position of Cedric's trillium is forced, i.e., it cannot be placed on the gules portion of the field.

3: Constanza Maria Colonna - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Erminois, a lion couchant azure

Constanza appears in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2952 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2952/) in a list of feminine names found in Latin records in Palermo in 1480. The foonote supporting this statement is [2] Armando Di Pasquale _Palermo nel 1480. La popolazione del quartiere della Kalsa_, Edizioni Mori, Palermo, 1975.

Maria appears in Arval Benicoeur, "Feminine Given Names from the Online Catasto of Florence of 1427" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto#alpha). Double given names are registerable in late-period Italian. Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2660 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2660/) states that, "[c]ompound given names (double given names, middle names) were common in some parts of Italy in your period [mid-15th cen.] and later. However, the most common pattern was for one of the names to be a saint's name, usually the second [8,11]." The cited footnotes are:

[8] Lyneya Fairbowe, unpublished research based on a baptismal register from Palermo 1561-3 that is available from the research library of the Church of the Latter Day Saints. Her data shows many examples of double and triple given names.

[11] James S. Grubb, _Provincial Families of the Renaissance: Private and Public Life in the Veneto_ (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp.42-7.

Constanza Maria fits the attested pattern of the second name being a saint's name. Colonna is found in Pantaleo Minervini, Dizionario dei Cognomi Pugliesi, s.n. Colónna (modern spelling) [2005, ISBN 8882295273, p. 155]. According to the same source, Colónna. is also a toponym found in Rome, along with another spelling, Colonnato. The header spelling appears to be dated 1558 in this book. Photocopies were provided. Assistance confirming that the byname occurred in the submitted spelling in period would be appreciated.

The locative is found in a map from 1567 found at http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b7759322c/f1.zoom.r=Colonna.langEN. The legend in the upper left hand corner states that the map is "Alla libraria della Colonna."

4: Constanza Maria Colonna and Magnús frá Jórvík - New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) A lion couchant azure

5: Ghita da Solari - Resub Device pended

Per pale Or and gules, a sun and a chief rayonny counterchanged

Her name was registered 08/2010 (East). A device, Per pale gules and Or, a sun and a chief rayonny counterchanged, was returned at the same time:

This device is returned for conflict with the device of Hanne vestfirzka, Per pale gules and Or, a sun within a bordure counterchanged. There is a single CD for the change from a bordure to a chief rayonny.

The device reversed the tinctures of the field, primary charge, and ordinary in order to clear the conflict. The sun was blazoned on the form as a sun in splendor; as it is just a plain sun, it has been reblazoned.

This device is in conflict with the device of Liudmila Vladimirova doch' (April 2004, Caid), Per pale Or and gules, a sun in splendour counterchanged. There is a single CD for adding the chief. Liudmila has agreed to provide permission to conflict. A possible conflict was called with Ajax Thermopylokles (September 1993, East), Per pale Or and gules, a Gorgon's head cabossed counterchanged on the basis that Ajax's device also conflicted with that of Liudmila:

Conflict under RfS X.5, "Visual Test", with Ajax Thermopylokles, Per pale Or and gules, a Gorgon's head cabossed counterchanged. The particular stylization of the gorgon's head in Ajax' armory leads it to be visually very similar to a sun in splendor. The snakes are evenly arrayed radially about the gorgon's face, rather than just issuant from the top of the head as one might expect of a gorgon with snakes for hair. The gorgon's face is also very stylized, more like a mask than a face. Thus the face resembles the disk of a sun more than one might expect of a standard woman's face. Overall the visual similarity is so overwhelming that we have no choice but to call conflict under RfS X.5. In ordinary circumstances we would expect there to be X.2 difference between a variant of a human head and a sun.
However, it is important to remember that conflict is not necessarily transitive. Just because device A conflicts with device B, and device C conflicts with device A, does not mean that device C will conflict with device B. In this case, there was an X.5 conflict call, meaning that Liudmila's device looked too much like that of Ajax, even though the type of primary charge might otherwise have been clear when counting CD's. In the case of the present submission, the addition of a chief is enough to avoid a visual text.

The device is pended to allow time to obtain the letter of permission to conflict from Liudmila.

6: Gwalchmai ap Talan - New Device Change forwarded

Or, a dolphin hauriant within a bordure vert

Old Item: Or, a natural dolphin haurient within a bordure vert, to be retained.

His name was registered 12/1994 (East). His current device was registered in 07/1996 (East).

7: Joan de Vassy - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per bend indented Or and vert, a unicorn salient and a bear statant contourny counterchanged

Submitter desires a female name. Sound (unspecified) most important. Joan is found in a matronymic byname, <Richard le Fitz Joan> (1327), found in a R&W, s.n. John. de Vassy is a French locative byname based on Dauzat, p. 587, which mentions "Vassy, localité d'origine". The following documentation was found for the registration of Iwain de Vassy (06/2010, East):

In the late 16th century, the locative appears as Vassy, Vassi, and Wassy. An etching based on the massacre includes the submitted spelling in the caption ("Le massacre fait à Vassy..."), as seen in Philip Benedict, Jacques Tortorel, and Jean Perrissin, Graphic history: the Wars, massacres and troubles of Tortorel and Perrissin (Librairie Droz, 2007, p. 267) (http://books.google.com/books?id=ZO75rkTPt5QC&pg=PA261&lpg=PA261&dq=massacre+at+vassy&source=bl&ots=K0DoDa3Uni&sig=YgICpzigLgn6HQYFQ1JgpMkVDzs&hl=en&ei=0AkcS-TUBpTSlAeC9bTvCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAoQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=&f=false). This souce discusses French books on the massacres that were published prior to 1570. This print appears to have been published in 1569, and the full caption is apparently "Le massacre fait à Vassy le premier jour de mars 1562" (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Massacre_of_Vassy.jpg), although the original caption has been cropped from this image.
Description contenant toutes les singularitez des plus célèbres villes et places remarquables du royaume de France, avec les choses plus mémorables advenues en iceluy, reveu, corrigé et auguementé du sommaire de l'estat, cartes des provinces et de quelques portraitz des plus signalées villes du dict royaume. [Par François Des Rues.]- J. Petit (Rouen) - 1611 (Description containing all the singularitez of the most famous cities and remarkable places of the kingdom of France, with the happened more memorable things in iceluy, reveu, corrected and auguementé of the summary of the estat, cards of the provinces and of some portraitz of the most signaled cities of the dict kingdom.) , on p 98, has a chapter devoted to "La ville de Vassy" which is described as "un siege Royal, appartenant {a} la maison Guise, & est situee au milieu des bois et forests de Haute-sustaye" (The city of Vassy is a Royal siege [seat], belonging to the house of Guise, & is located in the middle of wood and forests of Haute-sustaye". To view, see http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5652249c.image.f112.langEN

Joan can be found as an English given name contemporaneously with the 16th century date for Vassy in "English Given Names from 16th and Early 17th C Marriage Records" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/joan.html). This spelling is dated between 1580 and 1620. It is also found in "Names found in Charlton Kings, Gloucestershire Marriage Registers 1538-1600" by Arryanhwy merch Catmael (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/kings.html) dated in this spelling to 1550.

8: Leurona Winterborne - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Pean, a dragonfly and in base a crescent argent

Leurona is a English given name dating to 1211. It is a variant of Leverun, found in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/reaney/index_early4.html). Winterborne is the surname found as that of Walter Winterboure [sic] (1225-1305), confessor to King Edward I, and Thomas Wintrboure [sic], Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1475. The summary cited "The Internet Surname Database" (http://www.surnamedb.com/Surname/Winterborne). The submitted spelling appeared as a variant at this source. [Watts, s.n. Winterborne, gives Wy- Winterburn(e) -bo(u)rn(e), dated 1244-1591 under the listing for Winterborne Monkton, and dated 1230-1620 under the listing for Winterborne Zelston.]

9: Liesl Lüder - New Device forwarded

Counter-ermine, on a chevron argent three roses proper

Her name was registered 05/1996 via the East.

10: Magnús frá Jórvík - New Name forwarded

Magnús is a masculine given name found on p. 13 of Geirr Bassi. frá is a locative preposition found in Talan Gwynek, "Place-Names in Landnámabók" (http://my.stratos.net/~bmscott/Landnamabok_Place-Names.html). This preposition is used to indicate a person's place of origin (as opposed to where he currently resides). Jórvík is the Old Norse name for the city of York. Ekwall, s.n. York, gives the Scandinavian form as Iorvík, dated 962. The submitted spelling appears in Flojótsdæla saga (1), part 7, and Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar (2), part 51. In the former, the text is "Hann bjó á þeim bæ er í Jórvík heitir" [an English translation was not provided by the site, so my best guess is something about living at a farm in York - Lillia]. In the latter the city appears in the sentence, "Jórvík er þar höfuðstaðr" ('Its chief town is York'). The former source is in Icelandic, the latter is Old Norse. Flojótsdæla saga was written c. 1500 and the oldest transcription of Egils saga is from 1240 (it reports events from c.850-1000). It is not known if the transcriptions provided have been normalized.

(1) Anonymous, "Fljótsdæla saga", Icelandic Saga Database, Sveinbjorn Thordarson (ed.), (http://www.sagadb.org/fljotsdaela_saga)

(2) Anonymous, "Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar", Icelandic Saga Database, Sveinbjorn Thordarson (ed.), (http://www.sagadb.org/egils_saga)

It was noted that the locative byname might need to be í Jórvík, where the preposition is found in Cleasby & Vigfusson, p. 315, s.n. í, II. "With local names". It is also discussed on p. 327, s.v. Jórvík.

11: Matilde de Cadenet - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per bend sinister gules and checky gules and Or, in bend a rabbit rampant Or and a card pique azure

Submitter desires a female name. Matilde is a feminine given name, found as the name of the Countess of Matoue in Arnauld Sorbin, Oraison funèbre de très-hault, excellent, & verteux prince Lodovic de Gonzague prononcée en l'église cathédrale de Nevers le 7. de décembre, 1595, published in 1596 (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5660723h/f20 - p. 19). <Matilde the Queene> is found in English in 'Hospitals in this Citie and suburbs', A Survey of London, by John Stow: Reprinted from the text of 1603 (1908), pp. 143-145 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=60060&strquery=matilde). <Matilde Cornett> is found in 'Staffordshire Lay Subsidy, 1327: Cuttlestone hundred', Staffordshire Historical Collections, vol. 7, part 1 (1886), pp. 236-246 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=52473&strquery=matilde). The names did not appear to have been modernized. English and French can be combined without a SFPP [Engelbert the Pious, 12/2003]. de Cadenet is a locative byname based on Cadenet, a city found in La Croix du Maine, François Grudé (1552-1592; sieur de), Premier volume de la Bibliothèque du sieur de La Croix Du Maine , qui est un catalogue général de toutes sortes d'autheurs qui ont escrit en françois depuis cinq cents ans et plus jusques à ce jour d'huy... (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k125590p/f118 - p. 72).

12: Smoking Rocks, Barony of - New Device Change pended

Argent, a whale haurient embowed sable within a laurel wreath vert

Old Item: Argent, a sperm whale sable within a laurel wreath vert, to be retained. The Barony's name was originally registered 03/1978, and the designator was updated 02/2005, both via the East. It has two devices currently:

  • Current arms: Argent, a sperm whale sable within a laurel wreath vert (05/2005)
  • Ancient arms: Argent, a sperm whale [Physete catodon] naiant sable and in chief a laurel wreath vert (03/1978)
  • If the present submission is registered, the Barony would like to retain the current arms as ancient arms. If only one device can be so designated, the original device should be kept as their ancient arms, and the current arms (05/2005 registration) kept as a badge. There is a petition signed by the Baroness, Exchequer, Herald, Mistress of the Lists, Mistress of Arts and Sciences, Chronicler, Knight Marshal, and Marshal of Fence. However, everyone but the rapier marshal signed with their SCA names, not the required legal names, and did not date the petition. As such, the petition is not valid. Another has been requested.

    The petition was not received. This item is being pended for a month in order to give the barony more time. In addition documentation for this depiction of a whale needs to be obtained.

    13: Sugawara Noriko - New Name forwarded

    Noriko is a given name and Sugawara a byname found in NCMJ (1st edn.), pp. 258 and 381, and p. 38, respectively. Both elements are from Heian Japan, dated before 1185.

    The 2nd edn. of NCMJ, p. 396, lists Sugawara as an uji (clan name) and notes it as an "ancient" clanname that remains extant.

    14: Symonne des Chevaux D'Or - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

    Azure, a horse rampant contourny Or between three sunflowers two and one proper

    Submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Meaning ('Symonne of the Golden Horses') most important. Symonne appears once in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423, & 1438" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/paris1423.html). It also appears in Colm Dubh, "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/paris.html), in the name <Symonne la converte>. The documentation cites a <Sabine la courratierre de chevaux> in Colm Dubh, "Occupational By-Names in the 1292 Tax Role [sic] of Paris" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html) as evidence that "chevaux" is a period spelling of 'horses', with "la courratierre de chevaux" meaning 'horse trader'. Aryanhwy's article (op. cit., http://heraldry.sca.org/names/french/paris1423surnames.html) includes several surnames beginning with des, including <des Jardins> and <des Portes>; the documentation summary states that these are both locative bynames, but not of specific places. The submitter and consulting herald believe that 'of the golden horses' could be used as a descriptive byname for someone with yellow-colored horses. The summary also cited the registration of Cynewyn Deux Chevaux (05/2010, Atenveldt), but neglected to mention that the name was modified for registration as an inn-sign name:

    Submitted as Cynewyn Deux Chevaux, Deux Chevaux is a plausible sign name in French, perhaps as early as the late 13th C. However, in cases where such names are used as bynames, they include aux 'at the'. We have made this change in order to register this name.
    The LoI with Cynewyn's name cited Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 2588 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/2588):
    des Quiens * ("of or with the dogs")
    This report stated that this example came from Morlet Picardie.

    For the present submission, the documentation stated that Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Draft: Names from the 1292 Paris Census" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/1292paris.pdf), included several bynames referring to animals: <Chat-Blanc> 'white cat', <le Leu> 'the wolf', <aux Chevax> 'to the horses'. It also stated that, in Old French, the word was sometimes spelled chevaus and chevax. Copies of Aryanhwy's article were not provided. The submitted byname is intended to use a similar construction as <des Quiens> 'of/with the dogs'.

    Assistance finding documentation of an inn-sign name pattern to justify 'of the Gold Horses' in French is requested.

    Sunflowers are New World flowers, but per precedent, their use is not an SFPP because they are found in European heraldry in 1614 [Cristina Rose da Napoli, 03/2008, Atenveldt-A].

    15: Violet Gray - New Device Change forwarded

    Purpure, a squirrel contourny maintaining an acorn proper and on a chief argent three trefois purpure

    Old Item: Per bend sinister rayonny purpure and argent, a squirrel contourny and a violet slipped and leaved counterchanged, to be retained. Her name was registered 03/2005 via the East. Her current device was registered 09/2005 (East).

    16: Violet Gray - New Badge forwarded

    (Fieldless) An escallop inverted vert

    Her name was registered 03/2005 via the East. Her current device was registered 09/2005 (East).

    Standard bibliography:

    [Ekwall] Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names.

    [Geirr Bassi] Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name.

    [Mills] Mills, A. D. A Dictionary of English Place-Names.

    [NCMJ] Solveig Throndardottir. Name Construction in Mediaeval Japan.

    [R&W] Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames.

    [Searle] Searle, William George. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.

    [Watts] Watts, Victor, ed. Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, Based on the Collections of the English Place-Name Society.