Lillia de Vaux

13 January 2012

Greetings to the East Kingdom College of Heralds! Here is the Letter of Decisions for the November 20, 2011 Internal Letter of Intent. The original text from the iLoI is bolded, and is followed by my comments in unbolded text. Unless noted otherwise, copies have been provided. Any documentation not provided by the submitter will be reconstructed, if possible.

Thank you to the following commenters: Alys Mackyntoich, Gawain of Miskbridge, Brunissende Dragonette, Tanczos Istvan, Rohese de Dinan, Robert Fairfax, Marie de Blois, and Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa.

Yours in Service,
Lillia de Vaux Eastern Crown Herald

1: Ahelissa Dragun - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per bend azure and vert, on a lozenge argent a dragon's head couped azure.

No major changes. Ahelissa is a given name found in R&W, s.n. Alis, dated 1188. Dragun is a surname found in R&W, s.n. Dragon, dated 1166.

Commenters thought that this name was clear of Acelina le Dragon, registered in June 2005 (Atlantia).

2: Alia Marie de Blois - New Heraldic Title forwarded

Herault Honnesteté Plus Que Tout

The name was submitted as Honneste Sur Tout Herault. The client requests authenticity for 15th-16th century France. Language/culture (15th-16th century French) most important. Meaning ('Honesty above all') most important. Her name was registered Nov. 2001 (Outlands). Honneste Sur Tout Herault is a motto-style heraldic title, as described in Juliana de Luna, "Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance" (http://medievalscotland.org/jes/HeraldicTitles/). The intended meaning is 'honesty above all', which follows a similar pattern as <Die le vrai> 'he speaks the truth', <Plus que nulz> 'more than any other', <Ainsi le vueil> 'thus the will', <Voit qui Peult> 'let him who can, see', and <A ma vie> 'with my life (I will defend it)'. The source also gives herault as the appropriate word for 'herald' in medieval French titles. Honneste 'honesty' is found in Estienne's Dictionarium Latinogallicum from 1552, as found at the ARTFL project (http://artfl-project.uchicago.edu/content/dictionarium-latinogallicum), as part of the French definition of the Latin honestus. Sur 'above' is found in the definition of the Latin super (ibid.). Tout 'all' is found in the definition of the Latin omnis (ibid.). In modern French, the last two words might be joined to form surtout, but the submitter was unable to find this in late-period French. While the submitter prefers the full form, and requests assistance making it match 15th-16th century French spelling and grammar, she is also willing to accept Honneste Herault. The submitter was made a Herald Extraordinary at KWHSS 2005 by White Stag, Principal Herald of the Outlands.

Ivy Pursuivant commented that she expects the proper form to have "Herault/heraut/heraulx" first, then the motto. Honneste is the adjective ('honest') while honesty is honnesteté (same source cited in documentation). Although "sur tout" can be contracted as surtout, the meaning (and apparently the meaning by the 15-16th century already) is "mostly". http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/surtout. So, as submitted, the motto translates to "mostly honest herald". Ivy expects Honnesteté plus que tout would more closely meet the desired meaning. The name was changed accordingly.

The title should be clear of Honestie Pursuivant, registered to East, Kingdom of the (Sept. 1993, East).

3: Alia Marie de Blois - New Badge forwarded

Or, a schnecke issuant from base maintaining on the outer swirl three schneckes sable.

This is the defining instance of this type of schnecke. It is found in the 1377-8 L'Armorial Bellenville, MS Français 5230 at the BNF. This is a pan-European armorial, of which a facsimile was published by Michel Pastoureau and Michel Popoff (Editions de Gui, 2004).

4: Astriðr Ulfkelsdottir - Resub Name forwarded & Resub Device forwarded

Per chevron sable and argent, three wolf's teeth issant from dexter and as many from sinister and a raven counterchanged.

The name was submitted as Astrior Ulfkelsdottir. Submitter desires a female name. Language/culture (Norse) most important. The original name submission, Astrid Sigrun Ulfkillsdottir, was returned on the East's Mar. 14 and 15, 2011 Letter of Decision:

This submission had several major problems: (1) The submitted spelling of the given name was not supported by the documentation, (2) documentation on the patronym was lacking, (3) the patronym was a mixture of two languages, and (4) double given names don't appear to have been used in at least two Scandinavian languages, Old Norse [Tómas Halvar, 12/2007 LoAR, R-Outlands] and Norwegian [Wilhelm Skallagrimsson, 11/2009 LoAR, A-Caid]. As the submitter allowed us to drop the second given name, one of those problems was easily corrected.

The spelling Astrid is found in 1388, but as a Swedish name, in SMP, s.n. Astridh (http://www.sofi.se/5187). The byname Ulfkillsdottir is a patronym formed from the Old Danish Ulfkil and the Old Norse or Old Swedish -dottir. We cannot mix languages in the same name phrase, however. The submitter indicated that she was most interested in a Norse name, but changing to the Old Norse Ulfkell in the patronym is a change in language. This is a major change under our rules, which the submitter does not allow. I would put it all in Old Danish to preserve the submitted sound of Ulfkil, but strictly speaking, changing from -dottir to -dotir is also a change of language. This is an instance where the submitter has tied our hands and we cannot correct the name, even if all we have to do is remove two letters. I tried to contact her, but her email address did not work, and the consulting herald (who was cc'd) did not respond. As a result, I am forced to return the name so that the submitter can clarify what language she wants when she resubmits.

If the submitter wants a name that's all in Old Norse, it would be Ástríðr Úlfkelsdóttir. If she wants the spelling Astrid, she could combine it with the Old Norse Úlfkelsdóttir or the Old Danish Úlfkilsdótir. (The accents can be omitted, as long as this is done for the entire name.) There would be a step from period practice for combining Swedish and Old Norse [Sighfridh hauknefr, 03/2009 or Bjarki Einarson, 04/02], or for Swedish and Old Danish [Ulf Einarson, 04/02], but both combinations are registerable. Gillian Fellows-Jensen, in "The Vikings and Their Victims: The Verdict of the Names" (http://vsnrweb-publications.org.uk/Fellows-Jensen.pdf) mentions that Ulfketil is found in runic inscriptions in Sweden, so Astrid Ulfketilsdotter and Astrid Ulfketilsdottir are possible all-Swedish forms. (We found -dotter and -dottir in SMP, s.n. Cecilia. Other spellings of daughter are also found in SMP, if one of these isnt acceptable to the submitter.) Note, however, that there might be a step from period practice for temporal disparity between the elements, unless we can find a later instance of Ulfketil.

Astrior is stated to be at Gunnvôr silfrahárr, "Old Norse Names" (http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONWomensNames.shtml). However, this seems to be a misreading of the Old Norse Ástríðr. Ástríðr also is found in Geirr Bassi (p. 8). Ulfkelsdottir is a patronymic byname formed from the Old Norse masculine given name Úlfkell (Gunnvôr silfrahárr, "Old Norse Names", http://vikinganswerlady.com/ONNames.shtml#general_info). Úlfkell is also found in Geirr Bassi (p. 15). Formation of patronyms is found in Geirr Bassi (p. 17), which states that the genitive form of a name ending in -ll is formed by changing those letters to -ls. Therefore, Ulfkell would become Ulfkels-, and the appropriate patronym for a woman would be Ulfkelsdottir. By precedent, accents can be dropped in Old Norse, as long as it's done consistently. This is an identical submission of the device that was submitted with the original name. It was returned when that name was returned because kingdom cannot create holding names.

The spelling of the given name was corrected to match the available documentation.

5: Audrye Beneyt - New Device returned

Per bend vert and sable, a fox rampant argent maintaining in its paw three arrows inverted Or.

Her name was registered Aug. 2010 via the East.

The device conflicts with Johnathan Crusadene Whitewolf ("registered at some point"), Gules, ermined argent, a wolf rampant argent. There is a CD for changing the tincture of the field from gules ermined argent to per bend vert and sable. There is no CD granted for adding maintained charges. Furthermore, it conflicts with Lothar der Grauwolf (Aug. 1988, Ansteorra), Quarterly gules and pean, a wolf sejant erect reguardant argent, maintaining in the dexter paw a torch and in the sinister a sword Or. There is a CD for the cumulative changes to the field, but nothing for the change from sejant erect to rampant.

If the submitter resubmits, the fox should be drawn larger, to fill the available space.

6: Black Rose, March of - Resub Badge forwarded

Argent, between four arrows in saltire, heads outward, four roses sable barbed argent and a bordure sable.

This submission is to be associated with Shire March of Blak Rose Archers [sic]. This is a resubmission of Argent, four arrows in saltire, heads outward, sable and four roses in cross sable barbed argent, returned on the June 2011 LoAR:

This badge is returned for conflict with the badge of Alan Fletcher, Argent, two arrows in chevron sable. There is a single CD for adding six co-primary charges. In understanding this conflict, commenters should remember that additional charges are added in their final form: we are not adding six arrows and then changing half of the charges to roses, we add two arrows and four roses to the existing group in a single step.

The association should be "March of Black Rose Archers" to match the registered designator and spelling of the group name.

7: Caroline Lapointe - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per pale sable and erminois, a cross fleury between two increscents erminois and two decrescents sable.

Submitter desires a female name. No major changes. Sound (unspecified) most important. Caroline is found in Dauzat (p. 89), where it is described as a diminutive of Carolus (Charles), but this instance is undated. In addition, Withycombe (p. 29) dates the arrival of Caroline to England to Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1683-1737), but notes that the name came through southern German from Italy, "inferring earlier dates that would put the name in period". The consulting herald requests assistance documenting the name to France or Italy in our period. Lapointe is found in Dauzat (p. 490), but no date was provided. LaPointe is the submitter's mundane last name. The copy of the drivers license included has the name written in all caps, so the exact capitalization could not be confirmed.

Caroline and Lapointe (in some capitalization) are found in the IGI Parish Extracts:

CAROLINE BERTELOT Female Christening 10 August 1634 Marchemoret, Seine-Et-Marne, France Batch: C823161
CAROLINE FARE Female Christening 16 February 1635 Eglise Catholique, Bussieres, Seine-Et-Marne, France Batch: C004934
JEAN LAPOINTE Male Christening 29 November 1607 Saint-Aignan, Toul, Meurthe-Et-Moselle, France Batch: C836966

In addition, the names <Caroline d'Austriche> and <Caroline de la Baulme> are found in Histoire de Bresse et de Bugey, contenant ce qui s'y est passé de mémorable... jusques à l'eschange du marquisat de Saluces, avec les fondations des abbayes,... justifiée par chartes, titres,... by Samuel Guichenon, published 1650: "4. Caroline de la Baulme née le dernier de Iuillet 1608. & presenté au Baptesme par Caroline d'Austriche..." (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6142160s/f452, p. 31).

This name could also be registered as an English-French name. The given name appears in England prior to 1600 in the IGI Parish Extracts:

CAROLINE <SPINKE> Female Christening 30 April 1596 Bramham, Yorkshire, England JOHN SPINKE Batch: C039954
CAROLINE HARRYNTON Female Marriage 22 January 1569 Horncastle, Lincoln, England JOHN WHYTING Batch: M011911

8: Ciarán mac Gáeth - New Device returned

Quarterly azure and argent, in bend three arrows fesswise in pale and a tree eradicated argent.

His name was registered in May 2005 via the East. This device will be returned, as it violates RfS XI.3, Marshalling.

The device uses a quarterly field with more than one type of charge in the quarters, rather than over the entire field. As such, it meets the SCA's definition of marshalling and must be returned.

Conall an DoireConall an Doire

9: Conall an Doire - Resub Device forwarded

Per pale sable and azure, an oak tree couped, in chief three crescents all within a bordure argent.

His name was registered in Aug. 2011 (East). His original device, Per pale sable and azure, a tree couped and in chief three crescents argent, was returned on the East's April 2011 Letter of Decision:

The device conflicts with that of Margaret blomakinn Samsdottir (02/2004, Atlantia), Per bend sinister vert and sable, a tree blasted and eradicated and in chief three crescents argent. There is a CD for the field, but that is the only one. There is no CD between a tree and a tree blasted [Beata Lyndon of Taylorwood, 11/2008] or for a tree couped vs. a tree eradicated [Gregor MacDonald and Petronel Harlakenden, 10/2008]. The device was pended on the last Letter of Decision in order to try to obtain a letter of permission to conflict. Unfortunately, there was no response, so this device is being returned.

A bordure was added to clear the conflict.

The device was redrawn to eliminate the excessive shading of the crescents. As drawn, the tincture blurred the line between argent and per pale argent and sable. In addition, the bush that was depicted was changed to an unmistakable tree couped. The submitter approved the changes.

10: Dionisio da Desio - New Name forwarded

Submitter desires a male name. Dionisio is found in Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek, "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/venice14given.html). da Desio is a locative byname formed from Desio, a town in northern Italy (Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/159201/Desio). This article states that the town parish had more than 40 churches in the Middle Ages. The locative preposition da is found in Juliana de Luna, "Names from Sixteenth Century Venice" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/16thcvenice.html).

The byname is found in John Hawkwood: an English mercenary in fourteenth-century Italy by William Caferro (JHU Press 2006) (http://books.google.com/books?id=UTa89RPjDBEC, pp. 142-3). A <Filippo da Desio> had discussions with John Hawkwood c. 1371. The place name <Desio> is referenced in Milan: 1591, Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts in the Archives and Collections of Milan: 1385-1618 (1912), pp. 609-610. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=92312&strquery=desio). Desio was also the site of a battle in 1277 that gave the Visconti control of Milan (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.n. Visconti; http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Visconti).

11: Elise Morisot - Resub Device forwarded

Per chevron argent and purpure, two pansies and a butterfly within a bordure, all counterchanged.

The submitter's name is on the East's 12 Oct 2011 xLoI. Her original device, Per chevron argent and purpure, two pansies and a butterfly counterchanged, was returned on the East's Aug. 2011 Letter of Decision:

There is a possible conflict with Gabriella d'Asti (03/1997, East), Per chevron argent and purpure, three violets slipped and leaved proper and an escallop argent. There is a CD for changing the number of primary charges. There is a CD for changing the type of charge in base when the armory being compared both have three charges in the standard two-and-one arrangement [Letia Thistelthueyt, 12/2001, A-Atlantia], but precedent did not answer whether this would also apply when comparing armory with three charges to armory with four. Commenters noted the following precedents:
Two changes to a charge on one side of a line of division, even if not numerically half the charges, is a CD. Precedent for this practice is found on the November 1991 Cover Letter, under the "Group Theory" heading. This precedent was upheld as recently as March 2008. [Tegus Borjigin, January 2009, A-Caid]
While commentary was somewhat split on this issue, the general feeling was that to modify the Rules to define half of a group by line of division or as those charges on either side of an ordinary would only serve to encourage unbalanced armory. On the other hand, there are times when the visual impact of changes to charges which amount to "less than half the group" should be granted more difference. As a consequence, we are adopting Lady Dolphin's (now Lady Crescent) suggestion of allowing two changes to the minority of a group (i.e., the "lesser" half of a group of charges lying on either side of a line of field division or an ordinary) being sufficient for a Clear Difference. For example, "Per bend sinister sable and Or, a decrescent moon Or and three fir trees proper" would be allowed two CDs from "Per bend sinister azure and argent, a bear's head argent and three fir trees vert" with one CD for the field and another for the two changes to the charge in dexter chief. [Group Theory, Cover Letter, November 1991]
However, this is a moot point. The device conflicts with Eadwyn æt Hlydanforda (03/2010, Lochac), Per chevron argent and purpure, three roses counterchanged. There is a CD for changing the bottom rose to a butterfly, but there is no CD between a rose and a pansy [Catherine Elizabeth Anne Somerton, 08/1998, R-Trimaris]. Thus, the device must be returned.

Lastly, the submitter supplied information to show that "pansies" are a period plant; however, this term actually referred to the wild pansy (Viola tricolor), also known as heartsease. The modern pansy was not cultivated until the early 19th century. If the submitter wishes to resubmit armory with a Viola, she should use a depiction of heartsease instead of a modern hybrid in order to meet the requirements of RfS Section VII.4: "Hybrids or mutations of period forms known to have been developed after 1600 generally may not be used as charges. For example, the English Sheepdog may not be used in Society armory because it was developed after 1600."

A bordure was added to clear the conflict.

The depiction of the flowers is closer to heartsease, so is being forwarded.

12: Eyþóra knarrarbringa - New Name forwarded

The name was submitted as Eyþóra Knarrarbringa. The submitter desires a female name. No major changes. The client requests authenticity for Viking. Meaning ('gift of Thor' and 'breasts like a merchant ship') most important. The documentation for the given name simply cited Gunnvôr silfrahárr, "Old Norse Names" (http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONNames_and_Gods.shtml), and stated that Ey- and -þóra in period female names was supported by http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html. Copies were not provided for either source, and neither the author name nor the article title were given for the latter. [The article is Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Viking Names found in Landnámabók".] The nickname knarrarbringa 'merchantship-bosom, big tits' is found once in the Landnámabók, according to Geirr Bassi. By precedent, nicknames that are not pre-pended are not capitalized, so this will have to be fixed.

As support for the given name, Aryanhwy's article includes Ey- in the masculine names <Eyfr{o,}ðr>, <Eyvindr>, <Eyiarr>, <Eylaugr>, <Eymundr>, and <Eyþiófr>, among others. The only feminine names beginning with Ey- in this article are <Eydís> and <Eyia>. The same article has -þóra in the feminine names <Bergþóra> and <Hafþóra>. As stated above, the capitalization of the byname was modified to comply with precedent.

13: Gilian de Dureham - New Device forwarded

Vert, three open books within an orle Or.

Her name and device were on the East's 19 Aug. 2011 Letter of Intent. Her name was on the Aug. 2011 Letter of Decision, but her device, Vert, three open books Or, was returned for conflict:

The device conflicts with Angharad of the Coppery Shields (10/1987, West), Vert, three closed books palewise, spines to sinister Or. The only difference is open vs. closed books. It also conflicts with Emma Randall (03/2002, An Tir), Sable, three open books Or. There is only one CD for the field. Thus, the device must be returned.

An orle has been added to clear the conflict.

14: Godric of Hamtun - New Badge returned

Per pale vert and Or, a pheon counterchanged.

His name was registered Aug. of 1998 (East). His device, Vert, on a pall between a dragon and two towers Or a compass star sable, was registered in April 2003 (East).

Unfortunately, this badge conflicts with England (August 1997, important non-SCA royal badge), (Tinctureless) A pheon. There's one CD for adding the field, but the second CD must come from something other than tincture, per RfS X.4.d.

If the submitter resubmits (e.g., using a pheon inverted), the pheon should be drawn larger, to better fill the space.

15: Hew of Albion - New Name forwarded

Hew is found in Symon Fraser of Lovat, "13th & 14th Century Scottish Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/symonFreser/scottish14/), dated 1375. of Albion is a locative byname based on the ancient name of Britain, used by Greek and Roman writers, as well as Geoffrey of Monmouth in the 12th century Historia Regum Brittanniae. The form notes that the submitter lives in Albion, ME. Copies were not provided. However, a non-photocopy source for Albion is the MED:

(a1398) * Trev. Barth.(Add 27944) 173a/b: Inglond..hi3t some tyme Albion and hadde þat name of white rockes þat weren y-seye in þe see clyues.
1543(1464) Hardyng Chron.B (Grafton) p.30: This ysle of Albion had name Of the see bankes full whyte, all or sum, That circuyte the ysle.
c1275(?a1200) Lay. Brut (Clg A.9) 1243: Albion hatte þat lond.
a1500(?c1440) Lydg. HGS (Lnsd 699) 351: Off Brutis Albion his wolle is cheeff richesse.
c1300 SLeg.(LdMisc 108) 67/3: Seint Albion..Formest he was heþene man.

In addition, a Spaniard, <Jayme D'Albion> was Ambassador of King Ferdinand in France to England in 1507 [Spain: February 1507, Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 1: 1485-1509 (1862), pp. 403. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=93452&strquery=dalbion].

<Hew> is also found in English, dated to 1548, 1549, 1586, and 1608 in "English Given Names from 16th and Early 17th C Marriage Records" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/parishes.html), s.n. Hugh.

"mosiur Jaime d'Albion, nuestro embaxador en Francia" ("Mr. Jaime d'Albion, our ambassador in France") is found in Un Cedulario del Rey Católico (1508-1509) by Fernando V, King of Spain (p. 181; The same source mentions a <Juan de Albion> (p. 524; http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/descargaPdf/un-cedulario-del-rey-catlico-15081509-continuacin-ii-1/).

Mention of a 15th C. <Guichard d'Albion> was also found, but in a source we couldn't access (John M. Currin, "'The King's Army into the Partes of Bretaigne': Henry VII and the Breton Wars", War In History (October 2000), 7(4):379-412; http://wih.sagepub.com/content/7/4/379.abstract). The snippet in the Google search results shows "72 Guichard d'Albion to Charles VIII, in Lettres de Chares VIIIj ed. P6licier, Iii, Pieces justificatives, no. 17", seemingly from the bibliography.

This byname could be seen as the lingua anglica form of the attested D'Albion and de Albion. There would be a step from period practice for combining English and Spanish, but not for English and French. As for whether the use of the poetic term for Britain is inherently presumptuous, commenters noted that Albion is an English given name and surname found in the IGI Parish Extracts:

ANN ALBION Female Marriage 5 June 1558 Saint Mary Le Bow, London, London, England RICHARD NICOLLS Batch: M020601
ANN ALBION Female Christening 13 March 1642 Bruton, Somerset, England JOHN ALBION GARTRED Batch: P002691
ELIZABETH ALBION Female Marriage 9 May 1634 Boston, Lincoln, England NATHANIEL FULSHER Batch: M011331
GRACE ALBION Female Marriage 29 November 1623 Bromley, Kent, England ROGER HEDGE Batch: M147541
JOHN ALBION Male Christening 20 February 1630 St Giles Cripplegate, London, London, England RICH ALBION Batch: C022434
Albion Brierley Male Marriage 25 September 1631 St Michael'S, Derby, Derby, England Barbara Edmunds Batch: M049842
ALBION BRISTOW Male Christening 15 November 1607 Horsham, Sussex, England ALBION BRISTOW MARIE Batch: P014371
ALBION BRISTOWE Male Marriage 27 September 1601 Horsham, Sussex, England MARY PILLFOULDE Batch: M070641
ALBION BRISTOWE Male Other 27 September 1601 Horsham, Sussex, England Batch: E070641
ALBION CHAMBERLEN Female Christening 20 July 1628 Witham-On-The-Hill, Lincoln, England FRANCISCI CHAMBERLEN Batch: C061781
ALBION WICKES Male Christening 15 June 1600 Aldenham, Hertford, England THOMAS WICKES Batch: P012181
(among others)

Furthermore, Albion is also an English surname found in Bardsley, s.n. Juxon, dated to 1610. Combined with the non-English instances of D'Albion and de Albion, the submitter is being given the benefit of the doubt that such a name is not presumptuous for using Albion in a locative byname.

16: Ian Raven of Tadcaster - New Household Name forwarded & New Badge forwarded

Tadcaster Militia

(Fieldless) A rapier inverted sable surmounted by a roundel argent ermined vert charged with a raven contourny regardant.

His name and device, Argent ermined vert, a raven contourny reguardant and a bordure engrailed sable, were registered in June 1996 (East). Tadcaster is a town in Yorkshire, England. Watts, s.n. Tadcaster, has this spelling from 1269. Militia is found in the OED: "3. A military force, esp. the body of soldiers in the service of a sovereign or state; in later use employed in more restricted sense (= F. milice), to denote a citizen army as distinguished from a body of mercenaries or professional soldiers." Under this entry, the spelling <Milicia> is dated 1590, and the submitted spelling is dated 1625. A sub-definition also fits: "b. A particular species of warlike force; a branch or department of the establishment maintained for purposes of war." This entry gives the submitted spelling in 1647. Examples of a militia designated by a place name include the <Militia of London>, <Militia of the Citie of London>, and <London Militia> [1,2], and <Militia of Middlesex> [3], from the 1640s. These instances may be normalized; it's hard to know what was a period form and what was just added by the modern editors. They were also known as "trained bands" in Elizabethan England [4].

[1] April 1645: An Ordinance for the Militia of London and Middlesex to Prest Soldiers and send to Maidenhead., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 665. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56029&strquery=militia]

[2]January 1646: An Ordinance enabling the Militia of London to Press Soldiers., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 821-822. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56114&strquery=militia.

[3] August 1648: Ordinance to settle the Militia of Middlesex, Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 1177-1179. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56280&strquery=militia

[4] Queen Elizabeth - Volume 231: March 1590, Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Elizabeth, 1581-90 (1865), pp. 651-657. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=61111&strquery=trained bands

Therefore, it is thought that Militia would be an acceptable designator for a military unit. The submitter is aware that this may conflict with the city of Tadcaster. A recent acceptance stated the following:

[Household name House of Lochleven] This does not conflict with the real-world Castle Lochleven since that castle is not important enough to protect from conflict. It does not have its own entry in either the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica or the Britannica online. While the captivity of Mary of Scotland at this castle was an important historical event, it does not rise to the type of event outlined in the Administrative Handbook III.A.5. [Edward Grey of Lochleven, July 2011, A-East]

Although the town appears in the Domesday Book, and King Harold's troops assembled here before the Battle of Stamford Bridge (per the entry in Watts), the city of Tadcaster does not have its own entry in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica or Britannica Online. As such, the consulting herald considers it unlikely that this town is important enough to protect. A second potential issue is that milicia and militia in some earlier Latin documents translated as 'knight' or 'knighthood'. However, as this submission is for a non-personal name (RfS VI.1 specifically mentions "Society Names"), and a place cannot be knighted, it was not thought that this household name would be presumptuous.

John S. Nolan, "The Muster of 1588" (Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies (Autumn 1991), 23(3):387-407; http://www.jstor.org/stable/4051109) states that the Militia in Elizabethan England was divided into two parts: the Trained Bands (trained in modern warfare and given the latest weapons) and the General Muster (generally untrained and still using bows and bills). A 1585 mustering of the "City Militia" is described in John Strype's 1720 edition of John Stow's 1598 Survey of London: "And in April and May this Year, the Queen being at Greenwich, the City Militia, compleatly armed, mustered before six or eight Days, laying intrenched about Blackheath, to the number of 4000 or 5000 Men" (http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/strype/TransformServlet?page=book5_451&display=normal&highlight=+militia). However, this text is not found in the 1603 edition of Stow, so this instance is not reliable. Further, Mendoza [Bernardino de Mendoza, Spanish ambassador to England] described the English forces as the "contemptible English militia" in a letter to Phillip II of Spain, according to Lindsay Boynton, The Elizabethan Militia 1558-1638 (David & Charles (Publishers) Ltd., 1971, p. 164).

There is also a <Militia for the City of Westminster>, found in 'March 1649: An Act of the Commons Assembled in Parliament, For setling the Militia of the City of Westminster, and Liberties thereof, etc.', Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 20-23 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56320&strquery=militia). This Act empowers the Committee for the Militia "to assemble and call together all and singular person or persons within the said City of Westminster, and Liberties thereof, and the Parishes and places aforesaid, that are meet and fit for the Wars; and them to Train, Exercise, and put in readiness, and them after their abilities and faculties, well and sufficiently from time to time to cause to be arrayed and weaponed, and to take the Musters of them in places most fit for that purpose: And that they shall have power, to lead, conduct, and imploy, or cause to be led, conducted and imployed, the persons aforesaid arrayed and weaponed, for the suppression of all Rebellions, Insurrections and Invasions that may happen within the said City, and Liberties thereof, Parishes, Places, and Limits aforesaid..."

Commenters are reminded that the standard for registration is not how groups of people self-identified in period, but rather how groups of people were known in period. The question is not what members of a militia would call themselves but whether militia is a reasonable household designator for the purposes of SCA registration. In this case, documentary evidence of the use of militia to refer to a group of people was found, so it should be able to be registered, even if the term "trained band" (or just "band" or "company") was more common prior to 1650. In addition, the association of a trained band/militia with a city rather than a county/shire (e.g., Yorkshire) should be allowed on the basis that the "Cities of London, Westminster, Norwich and Canterbury" all had militias, and mention was made of "Officers of the Militia or Trained Bands of the said respective Counties and Cities" [emphasis added], according to 'January 1646: An Ordinance for punishing Imprested Souldiers that run away from their Colours.', Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660 (1911), pp. 820-821 (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56113&strquery=militia). At any rate, the ultimate call is not Eastern Crown's to make, so this must be forwarded for further discussion by the College.

17: Katrina MacCullauch - Resub Device returned

Per pale argent and sable, two swan's heads respectant, erased and necks entwined, counterchanged.

Her name was registered on the Aug. 2011 LoAR. Her prior device submission was returned on the same letter:

This device is returned for violating section VII.7.a of the Rules for Submissions, which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Commenters confused the swan's necks here with snakes, flowers, and vines.

The device has been redrawn.

None of the commenters could identify the swan's heads/necks, as nothing was changed from the prior attempt, aside from making the heads slightly larger. As such, the device is being returned again because it failed to correct the problem.

It should be noted that long-necked birds entwined seem to be a period motif, but the examples found had them facing to the sides of the escutcheon rather than in. An example is image 142/143 at http://bilderserver.at/wappenbuecher/VirgilRaberEXAv2_52z2/ (Wappenbuch der Arlberg-Bruderschaft, dated 1548). We suggest that a similar depiction be used, omitting the tongue, to aid in identifiability. For a good depiction of a swan from a period armorial, see the Petit armorial équestre de la Toison d'or, fol. 248 (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Penthesilea_as_one_of_the_Nine_Female_Worthie.jpg). It may also help to coup the necks rather than use erasing, as seen in the wappenbuch cited above.

18: Lillian atte Valeye - Resub Device forwarded

Or, in bend a fleur-de-lys sable between a fleur-de-lys vert and a fleur-de-lys purpure, on a chief sable, three bells Or.

Her name was registered Feb. 2005 (East). Her prior device submission, Or, in bend a fleur-de-lys inverted sable between a fleur-de-lys vert and a fleur-de-lys purpure, in chief three bells sable, was returned on the June 2011 LoAR:

This device is returned for multiple reasons.

It is returned because it is not blazonable. As drawn, the fleurs-de-lys are of equal weight to the bells. This means that they are all in a single charge group, but there is no way to blazon the relative arrangement of the six charges and still give the impression of co-primary charges. Section VII.7.b of the Rules for Submissions requires that "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon." Since it is not possible to blazon the device, it must be returned.

The device is also returned for being two steps from period practice, formerly called weirdnesses. One step was mentioned on the Letter of Intent:

Questions were raised regarding having...three roundels in three different tinctures. While were unable, in a quick look, to find an example of the same charge in three different tinctures, the Dictionary of British Armory, 2 shows the arms of Milo Fitzwalter of Glouster as Gules, two bends the upper Or and lower argent, making the use of the same change in three different tinctures only one weirdness [LoAR February 1998].
The other step from period practice is for inverting only one charge of a group of three charges: "Inverting one of three identical charges on a chief is poor practice." [Torgul Steingrimsson, R-03/1986] Since it has not been demonstrated to be period practice, inverting only part of a charge group (other than charges in annulo where the entire group is oriented radially) is a step from period practice.

This is a redesign. The complexity count is 7, still under the rule-of-thumb limit. As with the prior version, there is an SFPP for the use of three different tinctures for the fleurs-de-lys.

The charges should be larger, to fit the available space, but they are identifiable. Although the heraldic style is still poor, there is only one SFPP in this design, and it can be forwarded for consideration by the College.

19: Máirghréad Ghearr - New Device Change returned

Gules, a thistle and on a chief argent three dragonflies vert.

Old Item: Per bend gules and vert, a bend between a thistle and a dragon argent, to be released. Her name and currently registered device were registered April 2010 via the East. The form didn't state the disposition of the old device. The submitter was emailed for this information.

This device conflicts with Daniel Colquhoun (Nov. 1991, Meridies), Gules, a thistle and on a chief argent a saltire engrailed sable. There is a single CD for the changes to the tertiaries. It should be noted that, under the draft rules currently under consideration by the SCA Board of Directors, this would not be a conflict. However, as the rules are not in place yet, this must be returned at this time. If this design is resubmitted, the charges should be larger to fill the available space.

20: Marek Casimir of Krakow - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Checky sable and argent, a chief enarched argent, overall an eagle gules.

Submitter desires a male name. Marek is the Polish form of the Biblical name Mark, found in Walraven van Nijmegen and Arval Benicoeur, "Polish Given Names in Nazwiska Polaków" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/walraven/polish/#masc). It is found in this spelling, dated between 1557 and 1645-53, in Lillia de Vaux, "A Preliminary Survey of Names from the Historical Dictionary of Personal Names in Bia{l/}ystok" (KWHSS Proceedings, 2011). According to the submitter, Casimir is the modern spelling of the Slavic name <Kazimir>, found in Walraven and Arvals article (op. cit.) and in Wickenden. The latter describes it as an "ancient Polish name"; <Vasilei Kazimir> found in 1471. A similar name, <Casimirus>, is dated 1569 in Lillia de Vaux's article (op. cit.), so the submitted name seems reasonable. (The raw data show it used with a Polish locative surname: <Casimirus Baikowski>.) While <Kazimir> isn't found in this article, the spellings <Kazimier> (1580) and <Kazimierz> (1577-1647) are. of Krakow is a lingua anglica form of a locative byname. Kraków is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland, and can be seen as "Cracovia" in the 1493 Nurenberg Chronicles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuremberg_chronicles_-_CRACOVIA.png) and in the 1558-1562 Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 154 (http://www.orteliusmaps.com/topnames/ort154.html). There is evidence of double given names in Poland during our period, although these examples could represent a given name plus an unmarked patronym. Even if Casimir is considered to be a patronym, there is evidence of double bynames, including the pattern [patronym + locative byname] (Lillia de Vaux, op. cit.).

Precedent states that, "Overall charges may not surmount peripheral charges such as chiefs. "The orle overlying the point violates the rule prohibiting overall charges over peripheral charges." (LoAR October 1999, p. 22). [Miles de Colwell, 12/2001, R-Lochac]" A recent return stated that, "Additionally, no evidence was presented as to whether an overall charge may overlie peripheral ordinaries. Commenters were able to find some evidence that overall charges occasionally were found overlying a single peripheral ordinary." [Pompeia Karîna, 04/2011, R-Ealdormere] The evidence cited above included the following, all from the c. 1405 Wapenboek Beyeren:

Barry azure and argent, a chief Or and overall a lion gules (http://www.kb.nl/bladerboek/wapenboek/browse/page_008v.xml)
Argent, a chief gules and overall a lion azure (http://www.kb.nl/bladerboek/wapenboek/browse/page_006v.xml)
Barry argent and azure, a chief Or and overall a lion gules (http://www.kb.nl/bladerboek/wapenboek/browse/page_030r.xml - this is for the same person as the first example)

As such, it is hoped that the precedent can be explicitly overturned.

Additional evidence for a complex charge overlying a chief was found: image 110/111 of the Wappenbuch der Arlberg-Bruderschaft, dated 1548 (http://bilderserver.at/wappenbuecher/VirgilRaberEXAv2_52z2/), shows a ox with its horns overlying a chief.

21: Marion Quyn - New Device forwarded

Per bend sinister sable and vert, three coneys courant in annulo, each sharing an ear, within an orle argent.

Her name is on the LoPad dated 08 Oct 2011.

It should be noted that the "three hares" motif (sometimes known as "tinner's rabbits") is a common period artistic motif. For example, it appears in a 16th century carving at Paderborn Cathedral in Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paderborner_Dom_Dreihasenfenster.jpg). Other examples - both medieval originals and modern copies - from Devonshire, England, and elsewhere in continental Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. can be seen at the Three Hares Project (http://www.chrischapmanphotography.co.uk/hares/index.html). Evidence of its use in period heraldry was not found.

22: Ogedei Becinjab - New Badge forwarded

(Fieldless) A monkey statant contourny azure.

His name was registered Aug. 2007 (East). The submitter also has a badge, (Fieldless) A monkey statant contourny sable, registered at the same time.

23: Órlaith in viðf{o,}rla - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Per pale wavy vert and gules, in fess a harp and a compass rose, on a chief argent three ravens.

The name was submitted as Órlaithe inn Viðf{o,}rli. Submitter desires a female name. Meaning (last name: far-traveled) most important. Órlaithe is a feminine given name found as a header in OC&M, which describes it as the fourth most popular name in 12th century Ireland. It is also found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Orlaith.shtml). The latter source states that the submitted spelling is the standardized Middle Irish Gaelic nominative form, found in years 934-1283. inn Viðf{o,}rli 'far-traveled' is a descriptive byname found in Geirr Bassi, p. 29. The combination of Gaelic and Old Norse is an SFPP [Cera ingen Leoid, 03/00].

The header form in OC&M and the nominative form in Mari's article is Órlaith, with no terminal -e. In addition, the byname is masculine, and needed to be feminized to in víðf{o,}rla. It should also not be capitalized. The spellings have been changed accordingly.

24: Peter Pedrick - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Sable, a tree blasted and eradicated per pale argent and Or.

Submitter has no desire as to gender. Spelling most important. Peter is a header in Withycombe, which states that this spelling wasn't found before the 14th century. Pedrick is an undated header form found in R&W, s.n. Pethericke. It seems to be a variant of Petherick, a Cornish place name found in Watts, s.n. Little Petherick. Dated examples are found in the IGI Parish Extracts:

ANSTICE PEDRICK Female Marriage 26 January 1589 Saint Andrew, Plymouth, Devon, England RICHARD LEA Batch: M001831
CALEB PEDRICK Male Christening 4 March 1594 Saint Andrew, Plymouth, Devon, England JOHN PEDRICK Batch: P001831
DINNES PEDRICK Female Christening 26 February 1599 Saint Just In Roseland, Cornwall, England BERSEBYE PEDRICK Batch: C053181
...and so on

Peter is also found in "Late Sixteenth Century English Given Names" by Talan Gwynek (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/eng16/eng16alpha.html) with 58 instances noted.

The device conflicts with that of Ariadne of Alyson-tara (July 1979), Sable, a tree blasted sable fimbriated argent. There is a CD for the change of tincture of the tree, but eradication and fimbriation are not worth a CD. Therefore, the device must be returned.

25: Robin Still - New Name forwarded

Robin is dated 1200 in Withycombe, s.n. Robert. It is also the submitter's legal given name, but no proof was attached. Still is an undated header form in R&W. Spellings in this entry include <Stilla> (1066), <Stille> (1166), <le Stille> (1275), <atte Stille> (1327, 1333). The submitted spelling is found in Hitching & Hitching (1601), and in Bardsley, s.n. Still (1610).

Robin occurs in 1592 in "English Given Names from 16th and Early 17th C Marriage Records" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael, s.n. Robert (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/parishes.html). The surname is found in the submitted spelling in the IGI Parish Extracts:

AGNES STILL Female Christening 2 October 1572 Studham, Bedford, England Batch: P005071
ALICE STILL Female Christening 23 May 1580 Grantham, Lincoln, England WILLM. STILL Batch: P011241
ALICE STILL Female Christening 12 February 1593 Horsham, Sussex, England RICHARD STILL AGNES Batch: P014371
ALICE STILL Female Christening 7 April 1594 Cowden, Kent, England Batch: C130991
ALICE STILL Female Christening 27 October 1594 Grantham, Lincoln, England GERARD STILL Batch: P011241
(and others)

Sarah Elizabeth DhubhSarah Elizabeth Dhubh

26: Sarah Elizabeth Dhubh - Resub Name forwarded & Resub Device forwarded

Per chevron argent and azure, four wooden lace bobbins palewise proper and a hedgehog statant argent.

Submitter desires a female name. No major changes. The client requests authenticity for late 16th century English, married to a Scot. Language/culture (late 16th century English, married to a Scot) most important. Her original name submission, Sarah Elizabeth Dubh Sidhe, was returned on the East's Mar. 2011 Letter of Decision:

This submission had multiple problems: (1) There was inadequate documentation (both for the name elements and the construction of the name/combination of languages), and (2) the name did not provide justification for the use of the name of the Sidhe as a byname for a normal human, thus running afoul of RfS, VI.2, Names Claiming Powers. Elmet Herald also noted that, "No name that tries to combine English and Gaelic in the same name will be an authentic Anglo-Scots name for the 16th century. Gaelic was not the primary language of Scotland in the 16th century, particularly for those who intermarried with the English. The name really should be entirely Scots or Scots-English if she wants authenticity." In fact, the combination of English and Gaelic is a SFPP [Ian MacHenrik, 10/1999]. A more authentic form of the name would be something like Sarah Elizabeth Macduffe or Sarah Elizabeth MacFee. (Both of those bynames are found in Black, s.n. MacFee, and are dated 1532 and 1541, respectively.) We would make the change to meet her authenticity request, but changing the language of the byname from Gaelic to Scots is a major change, which the submitter does not allow.

If the submitter truly wants a Gaelic byname, despite the authenticity request, one could be constructed from the masculine given name Dub Sidhe. This name is purportedly the Gaelic form of the Scots name MacFee in Black, s.n. MacFee, but it is found in the Annals of Loch Cé LC1577.10 [see Kára inghean Dhuibhsith, 12/2008]. Gaelic names at this time were literal, so we would need some sort of particle to go with it, like inghean daughter, giving inghean Dhuibhsith. (An earlier spelling would use Duib Sidhe, but this would not be registerable because it would introduce a second SFPP for temporal disparity.) A clan affiliation byname would not be appropriate for a Scottish Gael [see "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" by Sharon Krossa, http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/]. However, as the submitter does not allow major changes like the addition of an element, we cannot make this change in order to forward on the name. The submitter was contacted in order to clarify her wishes based on the above information. She indicated that would like the Gaelic form given in Black, MacDhubhshith. Unfortunately, this byname is a modern one, and is not registerable unless documentation is provided to show that it was a period name:
The byname, MacDhubhshith, was documented from Black, Surnames of Scotland, s.n. MacFee, which says "Gaelic form, MacDhubhshith", with no dates. When Black discusses Gaelic forms without dates, he is discussing modern usage. Lacking evidence that MacDhubhshith is a period Gaelic form, it is not registerable [Uuroican MacDhubhshith, 09/2008].
As we cannot change the name according to period practice, and we cannot use the submitter's preferred, but modern, byname, this name must be returned.

The document summary for the new submission states the following (paraphrased): Sara and Elizabeth are English given names found in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "English Given Names from 16th and Early 17th C Marriage Records" (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/parishes.html). Sara is found s.n. Sara with 4 instances of this spelling. Elizabeth is found s.n. Elizabeth with 1015 instances of this spelling. Dubh is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic descriptive byname found in Mari Elspeth nic Brian, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Dub.shtml). It is found in years 1230-1590. Because the given names are feminine, the Gaelic descriptive byname may be lenited to Dhubh, according to Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#descriptivebyname). However, under the exceptions to the rule of lenition is the instance with the given name ends in -th and the byname begins with D- (http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/#exceptions1). The consulting herald was not sure if this exception would apply, since the given names are English, not Gaelic. There is an SFPP for the combination of English and Gaelic. Copies were not included of the non-no-photocopy documents.

The prior device return stated the following:

The submitter actually wanted wooden bobbins, so has withdrawn the device. It had not been withdrawn, it would have been returned for violating RfS VIII.2, Armorial Contrast, due to the metal-on-metal design. It was also recommended that the bobbins be drawn to match the one in the PicDic (or documentation to support the submitted shape needs to be provided), and to raise the point of the per chevron field division so that it doesn't blur the line between a point pointed and per chevron. (The device should be divided into two parts that are approximately equal in area.)

This depiction of "per chevron" blurs the line between that and a point pointed. It also does not meet the standards set out in the May 2011 Cover Letter. As such, this device needs to be redrawn.

The name cannot be made authentic for any time or place for more than one reason: (a) it mixes English and Gaelic, (b) a woman in period Scotland would have likely kept her own name after marriage [see Sharon Krossa, "Scottish Names 101" (http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/scotnames101.shtml)], and (c) it doesn't make much sense to use a Gaelic descriptive byname like this for an English woman. As with the prior return, we cannot make the name authentic because the submitter did not allow major changes. This was brought to the submitter's attention, and she indicated that she just wants this name and doesn't care if it's authentic. That, we can do.

The device has been redrawn with the submitter's permission to correct the problem with the per chevron division that was identified in the first return.

27: Sarra atte Brouk - New Name forwarded & New Device returned

Per saltire sable and purpure, a sheep statant argent.

Submitter has no desire as to gender. Meaning ('by the book/at the brook') most important. Sarra is found in Withycombe, s.n. Sara(h), which states that this spelling was in use in England from the 12th century. This spelling is found c. 1160 and 1219 in R&W, s.n. Sara. atte Brouk is found in R&W, s.n. Brook, with a <William atte Brouk> dated 1296.

Sarra is also found s.n. Sara in Talan Gwynek, "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary Of English Surnames" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/reaneyHZ.html) dated between c.1160 and 1332.

This device conflicts with Chlurain, Clan (reblazoned Nov. 2010, Atenveldt), Per fess gules and Or, a sheep passant argent, maintaining under its sinister foreleg a tub sable. There is one CD for the field, but nothing for the removal of the maintained tub. As a result, this device must be returned.

Sean MacPhersonSean MacPherson

28: Sean MacPherson - New Device forwarded

Sable, two foxes counter-salient between three thistles argent.

His name was registered May 1992 via the East.

Istvan Wreath Emeritus could not identify the thistles. The device was redrawn with the submitter's approval.

29: Seosamh Tadhg an Crúca OMaille - New Alternate Name forwarded

Joseph de Burgh

Submitter desires a male name. No major changes. Spelling (preserve submitted spelling if at all possible) most important. Joseph is the submitter's legal name, as attested from his driver's license by Elmet Herald. It also appears in Karen Larsdatter, "An Index to the 1523 Subsidy Roll for York and Ainsty, England" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/york16/given-masc-alpha.htm). de Burgh is found in Close Rolls, Richard II: June 1382, Calendar of Close Rolls, Richard II: volume 2: 1381-1385 (1920), pp. 200-201. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=99464&strquery=&strquery="de Burgh") and also in Close Rolls, Henry VI: March 1436, Calendar of Close Rolls, Henry VI: volume 3: 1435-1441 (1937), pp. 58-61. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=109612&strquery=Burgh). The bynames in these sources are not modernized.

30: Shely Magennis - Resub Device forwarded

Quarterly argent and sable, two phoenixes argent.

Her name was registered on the June 2011 (East). Her first device submission, Quarterly sable and argent, in bend two phoenixes argent, was returned on the East's Feb. 2011 Letter of decision for conflict with Finnseach de Lochiell (Oct. 1997, Middle), Per bend sinister sable and vert, in bend two phoenixes argent. Her second device, Quarterly argent and sable, in bend sinister two phoenixes argent, was returned in kingdom on the Mar. 2011 Letter of Decision for the same conflict because the move was forced and not worth difference. A letter of permission to conflict was obtained from Finnseach de Lochiell:

I, <legal name>, known in the Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc., as Finnseach de Locheil hereby grant permission to <legal name>, known in the SCA as Shely Magennis, to register a device (Quarterly argent and sable, in bend sinister two phoenixes argent), which is similar but not identical to my device (Per bend sinister sable and vert, in bend two phoenixes argent). I understand that this permission cannot be withdrawn once <legal name> registers the above device.

<Signed with legal name, dated 12 Jul 2011>

31: Sorcha rauðrefr - New Name Change forwarded

Old Item: Sorcha Chathasach, to be released. The submitter's current name was registered 09/1990 (East). She has a device change that was on the East's Oct. 2011 iLoI. Sorcha is grandfathered to the submitter. It is a feminine given name glossed as 'bright, radiant' that is found as a header in OC&M. It is described as having been common in medieval Ireland. According to Mari Elspeth nic Brian, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sorcha.shtml), this is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name, found in years 1480, 1500, 1530, 1639(?). Sorcha as an adjective appears earlier, e.g., the Táin Bó Cúalnge from the Book of Leinster, written in Old and Middle Irish Gaelic c. 1100-1135 (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G301035.html), showing that this spelling is consistent with earlier Gaelic orthography. However, it is found in a possibly mythical place name, Tír na Sorcha, not in a personal name. rauðrefr is an Old Norse nickname meaning 'red fox'. It is found in Geirr Bassi, p. 26, where it is indicated that it is from the Landnamabok. As it is a noun in type, it does not need to be feminized (ibid., p. 18). There is a SFPP for the combination of Gaelic and Old Norse. As Old Norse/Old Icelandic was found into the late 13th century (per the preface to Cleasby & Vigfusson), and at least one surviving version of Landnamabok (the Hauksbók, see http://handrit.is/en/manuscript/view/AM04-0544) dates from 1302-1310, it is possible that there is not a second SFPP for temporal disparity. [Her already-registered name does not have an SFPP for temporal disparity, so the submitter cannot overcome it via the grandfather clause.]

Sorcha is most important to her if the name must be changed.

32: Theodora Bryennissa - New Device Change forwarded

Argent, a tassel and a chief engrailed azure, a bordure sable.

Old Item: Argent, a hawk's lure and a chief engrailed azure, overall a bordure sable., to be released. The submitter's current device was registered on the June 2011 LoAR (East). The submitter wanted a tassel, not a hawk's lure. As such, the device has been redrawn with the correct depiction of a tassel, which does not include a cord.

33: Úna inghean Chonaín - New Name forwarded

The name was submitted as Úna inghean Conan, but as Eastern Crown was norminally the consulting herald, the grammar and lenition were corrected before it went on the Letter of Intent. Submitter desires a female name. The client requests authenticity for 12th to 15th century Irish. Úna is found in Academy of Saint Gabriel report no. 1215 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/1215). This report states that it was a popular name in the late medieval period, citing OC&M. It is also found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Una.shtml). It is the standard Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the name, found in years 1306-1589. The same report includes the patronymic particle inghean, referring to Sharon Krossa, "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" (http://medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/). Chonín is the lenited, genitive form of Conán, a masculine given name found as a header in OC&M. This name is glossed as meaning 'hound, wolf'. There were six saints of this name, including a relative of St. Columbcille. It is found in the Annals of Tigernach, which was written primarily in Early Modern Irish Gaelic (modernized from earlier Irish Gaelic):

T1041.4. Cu Criche h-ua Dunlaing, rí Laighsi, & a mac & Cailleóc a ben, do marbad simul do Mac Conaín a Tigh Mo Chua Meic Lonain, & ro marbad eisin arnamarach lá h-ua m-Braenain, & firt mor do Mo Chua an ni-sin.
(T1041.4. Cú Críche Ó Dúnlaing, king of Leix, and his son, and Cailleoc his wife were killed at the same time by Mac Conáin at the House of Mochua son of Lonán Timahoe and on the morrow he was killed by Ó Braonáin, and that was a mighty miracle of Mochuas.)
(http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/G100002.html and http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100002A.html)

The manuscripts used to write the copy transcribed at the CELT Archives were written in c. 1050-1150 and c. 1350-1400.

34: Viviana da Cremona - New Name forwarded

Viviana is the name of a saint martyred in the 4th century. She is also known as Vivian (not to be confused with the masculine St. Vivian), Vibiana, and Bibiana (Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02542b.htm). She is mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis:

1 Simplicius, natione Tiburtinus, ex patre Castino, sedit ann. XV m. I d. VII. Hic dedicauit basilicam sancti Stephani in Celio monte, in urbe Roma, et basilicam beati apostoli Andreae, iuxta basilicam sanctae Mariae, et aliam basilicam sancti Stephani, iuxta basilicam sancti Laurenti, et aliam basilicam intra urbe Roma, iuxta palatium Licinianum, beatae martyris Bibianae, ubi corpus eius requiescit.
(He dedicated the basilica of the holy Stephen on the Celian Hill in the city of Rome and the basilica of the blessed apostle Andrew near the basilica of the holy Mary and another basilica of the holy Stephen near the basilica of the holy Lawrence and another basilica of the blessed martyr Bibiana within the city of Rome beside the Licinian palace where her body rests.)
[XLVIIII. SIMPLICIVS (468-483); http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/liberpontificalis1.html and http://www.archive.org/details/bookofpopesliber00loom]

A sculpture of her by Gian Lorenzo Bernini was completed in 1626, and can be found in the Church of Santa Bibiana in Rome (http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/gian-lorenzo-bernini/st-bibiana-1626). Although a period reference to this saint or another woman with the submitter's preferred spelling could not be found, the name could be constructed as a feminized form of the masculine given name Viviano, found in Juliana de Luna, "Names in 15th Century Florence and her Dominions: the Condado" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/condado/). Examples of feminizing by changing -o to -a can be seen in the same article: Iacopo/Iacopa, Francesco/Francesca, Antonio/Antonia. The name was also known in Spain, as found in the IGI Parish Extracts:

VIVIANA DE OLAONDO ELICONDO Female Marriage MARTIN DE CUBIAURRE 13 OCT 1602 San Juan Bautista, Lezo, Guipuzcoa, Spain M891221
VIVIANA DIEGO PEREZ Female Christening 14 DEC 1586 San Santiago, Villalba De Los Alcores, Valladolid, Spain JUAN DE DIEGO ANNA PEREZ Batch C862391

da Cremona is a locative byname based on the town of Cremona, which appears in Maridonna Benvenuti, "Mercators Place Names of Italy in 1554" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/mercator/north.html). The preposition is found in Juliana's article (op. cit.), e.g., <Agnolo da Chafaggio> and <Dendi da Castelfrancho>. The submitter included correspondence between Garnet Herald and Eastern Crown, but no copies of any of the articles cited.

35: Vos Abendroth - New Name forwarded & New Device forwarded

Chevronelly argent and gules, on a chief sable a coronet between two phoenixes Or rising from flames proper.

Vos is a Latinized masculine given name found in "Male first names in the annual accounts of Deventer 1337-1393" by Bertus Brokamp (http://www.deventerburgerscap.nl/studies/voornamen-man-en.htm). The submitter would very much like the given name Devos, but neither the submitter nor the consulting herald was able to find any evidence of this name. Assistance finding the preferred name is appreciated. Abendroth is a German surname found in the IGI Parish Records:

BARBARA ABENDROTH Female Christening 13 March 1626 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen MICHAEL ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
ELISABETH ABENDROTH Female Christening 24 July 1613 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen JACOB ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
ELISABETH ABENDROTH Female Marriage 12 August 1618 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen HANS WEISS PAUL Batch: M999992
JOHANNES ABENDROTH Male Christening 12 August 1616 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen STOFFEL ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
JOHANNES ABENDROTH Male Christening 20 April 1617 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen JACOB ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
JOHANNES ABENDROTH Male Christening 30 August 1623 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen STOFFEL ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
JOHANNES ABENDROTH Male Christening 1 June 1648 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen LORENTZ ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
LAURENTIUS ABENDROTH Male Christening 26 July 1609 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen JACOB ABENDROTH Batch: P999991
OSANNA ABENDROTH Female Christening 17 November 1645 Goldlauter, Sachsen, Preussen LORENTZ ABENDROTH Batch: P999991

The combination of Latinized Dutch and German is registerable without an SFPP [Wilhemla von Ravensburg, Jul. 2004, A-Aethelmearc]. The submitter became a court baron on 07 Aug 2011, and is entitled to bear a coronet in his device.

Standard Bibliography:

[Bardsley] Bardsley, Charles. A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames.

[Cleasby and Vigfusson] Cleasby, Richard, and Gudbrand Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary.

[Dauzat] Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prenoms de France.

[Geirr Bassi] Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name.

[Hitching & Hitching] F. K. & S. Hitching. References to English Surnames in 1601 and 1602.

[MED] The Middle English Dictionary.

[OC&M] Ó Corrain, Donnchadh & Maguire, Fidelma. Irish Names.

[OED] The Oxford English Dictionary.

[Wickenden] Paul Wickenden of Thanet, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names.

[R&W] Reaney, P.H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames.

[Watts] Watts, Victor, ed. Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, Based on the Collections of the English Place-Name Society.

[Withycombe] Withycombe, E.G. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names.