Alys Mackyntoich

19 September 2013

Unto to the East Kingdom College of Heralds, upon the Feast of Saint Lucy, greetings and every good thing! Here is the Letter of Decisions for the August 2013 Internal Letter of Intent. The original text from the iLoI is bolded, and is followed by my comments in unbolded text.

Thank you to the following commenters: Abdullah ibn Harun (Sinking Tower); Alexandre Lerot d'Avigne; Andreas von Meißen (Rowel); Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Schwarzdrachen); Brunissende Dragonette (Hyrondelle); Donovan Shinnock; Eleazar ha-Levi; Etienne Le Mons (Vexillum); ffride wlffsdotter (Goutte d'Eau); Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa (Seahorse); Galefridus Peregrinus; Gunnvor silfraharr (Orle); Jeanne Marie Lacroix (Dolphin); Joscelin le esqurel (Blue Tyger); Kiho; Kolosvari Arpadne Julia; Lillia de Vaux (Diademe); Llewellyn Walsh; Lucien de Wyntere; Modar Neznanich (Volk); Palotzi Marta; Simeon ben Iucef de Alcacar; Tanczos Istvan (Non Scripta); Ulric von der Insel (Black Tower); and Yehuda ben Moshe (Elmet). As always, your contributions are invaluable.

Your servant,
Alys Mackyntoich
Eastern Crown Herald

1: Anastasia da Monte - New Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) In saltire a mirror Or glassed argent and a rapier sable.

Prior to the three badges submitted on this letter, Anastasia had only a single device registered: Purpure, on a pale wavy argent a lizard tergiant vert (July 2012, East). She remains well under the registration limit of six pieces of armory.

Recent precedent concerning dissimilar objects in saltire suggests that this should be reblazoned as (Fieldless) In saltire a handmirror Or glassed argent surmounted by a rapier sable:

When blazoning two dissimilar charges in saltire, the bendwise charge is blazoned first; as the most "honorable" charge, it is expected to also be topmost by default. In order to specify that the bendwise sinister charge is on top in this case, we are using surmounted, but this is still treated as a single primary charge group, not a primary charge group with an overall charge group. There is no difference granted for changing which charge is on top. [Titus Aurelius Magnus, August 2012. A-East]

Istvan Non Scripta argued that changing the blazon based on which charge is on top is not a period concept. Other commenters argued that which charge is on top when a pair of different objects is arranged in saltire is a minor artistic detail that should not need to be blazoned. Although I find both of these arguments persuasive, such broad-reaching policy questions are properly decided by Wreath and Laurel. I have opted not to change the submitted blazon.

2: Anastasia da Monte - New Badge Returned

(Fieldless) A natural lizard tergiant vert.

Prior to the three badges submitted on this letter, Anastasia had only a single device registered: Purpure, on a pale wavy argent a lizard tergiant vert (July 2012, East). She remains well under the registration limit of six pieces of armory.

This odd embowed counter-embowed depiction of a lizard tergiant is likely grandfathered to the submitter because it is precisely what appears on her device. However, and unfortunately, this badge must be returned because it conflicts with the device of Sally Salamandra the Whitesmith (Jan. 1991, Calontir): Purpure, a salamander tergiant vert flamed Or. There is only a single DC for the field. No difference is granted for the multiple small spurts of flame on the salamander, as they do not constitute half the charge.

3: Anastasia da Monte - New Badge Returned

(Fieldless) A rapier argent between and conjoined to two natural lizards tergiant vert.

Prior to the three badges submitted on this letter, Anastasia had only a single device registered: Purpure, on a pale wavy argent a lizard tergiant vert (July 2012, East). She remains well under the registration limit of six pieces of armory.

This device is being returned for a redrawing to clarify the posture of the lizards. The odd embowed counter-embowed depiction of the lizard tergiant to the right of the rapier is likely grandfathered to the submitter because it is precisely what appears on her device. However, that grandfathering may not extend to the lizard on the left, which is in an unblazonable and slightly trian posture. On redrawing, the submitter is also advised to make the lizards and the rapier more clearly conjoined.

4: Ásgeirr þurs - New Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Vert, in saltire two arrows inverted and overall a lion dormant Or.

Ásgeirr is a male given name found in "Viking Names found in Landnámabók" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html) with a frequency of 19.

þurs is a descriptive byname meaning "giant, troll" found in "Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html). It is not clear from the form whether the byname is intended to be capitalized or not.

The tincture of the charges was omitted from the original blazon; that omission has been corrected.

5: Asher de Lincolia - New Name Forwarded

The submitter requests a Jewish name for the Angevin period in England c. 1100 A.D.

Both name elements are found in "Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England" by Eleazar ha-Levi (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/jewish.html).

Asher appears as a male given name.

Militis appears as a byname with the meaning "Knight (?), soldier."

SENA PN.4.B. states:

B. Claim to Rank: Names may not contain a claim to a protected and/or restricted rank that the submitter does not have within the Society. This includes the following:
1. Use of Elements that Appear to Be Titles: Names may not contain an element or group of elements that create the appearance of a claim to have a specific protected rank or title that the submitter does not possess within the Society, even if that name element or elements are attested. Those titles which are so protected can be found in the List of Alternate Titles.
Attested bynames which are identical to titles used in the Society are generally not allowed for individuals who do not have that rank. Relatively minor changes to the form of the byname can remove the appearance of a claim to rank.
For example, only a knight can register the byname Knight or Chevalier, as both are titles used in the Society for a knight. However, while the family name Visconti is derived from the word for viscount (visconte) it is not actually the restricted title. Thus the byname Visconti is not a claim to be a viscount, and can be registered.
Commenters are asked to discuss the registerabilitly of Militis under PN.4.B.1. Note that Militis is not one of the alternative reserved titles for members of the Chivalry.

This name was submitted as Asher Militis. However, Militis is the Latin genitive form of miles, a restricted title for members of the Chivalry. The genitive form is not the correct form for a descriptive byname. Changing this to the nominative form would yield Asher Miles. I have confirmed with Asher that he is not a member of the Chivalry; as a result, the correct form of the name is presumptive and cannot be registered to him under SENA PN.4.B.

I had a lengthy conversation with the submitter about his options. On August 23, 2013, the submitter opted to change his name to Asher de Lincolia. Lincolia is a place name appearing s.n. Lincoln dated to 1086 in "Dated Placenames from Lincolnshire" by Gunnvor silfraharr and Talan Gwynek (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/gunnvor/LincolnshirePlacenames/Lincolnshire3.htm#l). The use of the pattern de + [place name] for Jewish bynames c. 1100 is supported by "Jewish Naming Convention in Angevin England" by Eleazar ha-Levi (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/jewish.html).

6: Damiano Vitale della Fonda - New Device Forwarded

Per bend sinister sable and argent, a sword inverted bendwise sinister between two apples counterchanged.

This device suffers from two major paperwork failures: (1) no black and white outline drawing was provided; and (2) the shield shape was substantially changed from the size and shape on the form. Both of these are grounds for return. While Eastern Crown decides whether to arrange for a re-draw or simply to return the device, please comment on conflicts and style issues.

Lady Mary of the Stuwes supplied new submission forms that corrected the issues with the device almost immediately. She also re-drew the apples to follow the period rounded depiction:

Appledore, Shire of. Badge. Checky sable and argent, an apple slipped and leaved within a bordure gules. Please instruct the submitter that apples as depicted in period would be nearly round. Apples drawn in the modern, flat-sided trapezoidal style seen in this submission will henceforth be considered a step from period practice. [Nov 2010, An Tir-A].
With these timely corrections, I am forwarding the device as redrawn with many thanks to Lady Mary.

7: Giggleswick, Riding of - New Branch Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Azure, a water wheel within a laurel wreath argent, in base a ford proper.

Riding is one of the standard designators for branches found in the Administrative Handbook. (http://heraldry.sca.org/admin.html#I.A)

Giggleswick is the header form in Mills, A Dictionary of British Place Names, with the dated form Ghigelswic in 1086. SENA NPN 1.C.2.c limits the use of the Lingua Anglica rule to "attested and constructed household names, heraldic titles, and order names." It does not say that Lingua Anglica forms can be used to create branch names. Assistance in documenting the submitted form therefore is requested.

A petition signed by the members of the Riding is enclosed, but it is not dated and contains only a blazon and not an emblazon of the submitted armory.

A dated petition was provided during commentary. To be valid, a petition must have a date. An emblazon, however, is not required. [Jan. 2011 Cover Letter]

Giggleswick appears at p. 61 of "Yorkshire church notes, 1619-1631" by Roger Dodsworth (http://books.google.com/books?id=NmsKAQAAMAAJ). The related spelling Giggleswicke appears in 'Yorkshire Fines: 1588', Feet of Fines of the Tudor period [Yorks]: part 3: 1583-94 (1889), pp. 86-106. (http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=49702&strquery=Giggleswicke).

8: Harvey Wynegode - New Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Per fess gules and Or, three bunches of grapes slipped and leaved counterchanged.

Harvey is an English male given name found in the IGI Parish Records Extracts:

Harvey Christin; Male; Christening; 27 Aug 1558; SAINT MARTIN IN THE FIELDS, WESTMINSTER, LONDON, ENGLAND; Batch: P00145-1
Harvey Moore; Male; Christening; 03 Jan 1559; BISHOPS TAWTON, DEVON, ENGLAND; Batch: C05034-1
Wynegode appears in a database compiled by professors from the University of Southampton and the University of Reading (England) about soldiers in the Hundred Years War, as the surname of a man-at-arms who traveled to France in 1375. (http://www.medievalsoldier.org). The bynames in this database have been preserved in their original spellings.

The database information page for www.medievalsoldier.org says, "the act of data collection requires an element of editing, for instance in terms of standardizing first-names (unless unusual or foreign in origin) and surnames where appropriate, translating some of the standard clauses used by the clerks and coding of some of the regular data types." I tested the database by searching for a number of period spellings of bynames from Reaney and Wilson and the MED. I found almost all of the expected spelling variants for the same root bynames. While some bynames may have been modernized, it appears to have been done only very infrequently. In any event, Wynegode is clearly not a standard modern form, so it likely can be trusted.

9: Jibril ibn `Ammar al-Fayyad - New Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) On a broad arrow argent a decrescent sable.

10: Jibril ibn `Ammar al-Fayyad - New Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) A crescent-shaped arrowhead sable.

An arrowhead of this type, dated between 1066 and 1500, can be seen at the Portable Antiquities Scheme website, cited below. Hinds,K (2005) WILT-73A897 A MEDIEVAL ARROWHEAD Webpage available at: http://finds.org.uk/database/artefacts/record/id/114970 [Accessed: Jul 20, 2013 4:44:27 AM]

A similar extant piece, dated to the late 13th century, is sketched on in Oliver Jessop, "A New Artefact Typology for the Study of Medieval Arrowheads" (The University of York, Archeology Data Service; http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/arch-769-1/dissemination/pdf/vol40/40_192_205. pdf) on p. 194 (page 3 of the PDF).

A "crescent-shaped arrowhead" seems a reasonable blazon for this image.

11: Varju Kalara - New Name Forwarded and New Device Returned

Per pale sable and argent, a raven's skull palewise counterchanged.

Kalara is a given name found in "Hungarian Feminine Names" by Walraven van Nijmegen (http://heraldry.sca.org/names/magfem2.html) s.n. Klára dated to 1605.

Corvus is the Latin genus for crows or ravens. Mattias Corvinus was the King of Hungary (1458-1490) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Corvinus).

Obviously, the documentation for the byname could use some help. Commenters, please see what you can do.

This name was submitted as Kalara Corvus but no documentation was provided for the byname. Kolosvari Arpadne Julia contributed documentation for Varju as a Hungarian byname meaning "crow." On August 10, 2013, the submitter consented to a change to Varju Kalara; in that form it is a registerable late-period Hungarian name.

Unfortunately, this device must be returned because commenters almost uniformly could not identify the charge. SENA A.2.C.2 states "Elements must be drawn to be identifiable. While some allowance will be made for lack of artistic skill, the identity of elements must not be ambiguous." Only one person shown the device identified it as a bird's skull of some unknown kind. Others saw a plague mask, a rusty dagger, an alien head or an ice cream cone.

12: Kashiwadebe no Hikojiro - New Badge Forwarded

Sable, on a bezant a lozenge ployé throughout sable

The submitter has provided documentation for this design as a Japanese heraldic motif dating to the Heian period and used on a banner dated to before 1582.

Image #1 is from p.73 of "The Samurai Sourcebook" by Stephen Turnball (Cassell & Co., London, 2000). It shows the banner of Sakuma Nobumori (d. 1582).

Image #2 is from p. 134 of "The Elements of Japanese Design" by John W. Dower (Wetherhill, Boston, 2005).

At the suggestion of commenters, I have changed the blazon to Sable, on a bezant a lozenge ployé throughout sable.

13: Llewellyn Walsh - New Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) In saltire a rapier inverted sable and a mirror Or glassed argent.

An unsigned letter of permission to conflict from Anastasia da Monte was included with the submission, but does not appear to be necessary due to the differences in orientation of the charges between this badge and Anastasia's. Please comment on this.

Commenters agreed that Anastasia's badge appearing elsewhere on this letter is not a conflict.

14: Murdoch Blackwood - New Name Forwarded and New Device Returned

Azure, a fess Or surmounted by a boar rampant reguardant gules between three drinking horns Or.

Both name elements are from "Index of Scots names found in Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue," by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/scots/dost/).

Murdoch is a male given name dated to 1599 in this spelling (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/scots/dost/murdoch.html).

Blackwood is the header form of a surname, with the dated form being Blacwod dated to 1588. (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/scots/dost/blackwood.html). In support of the submitted spelling, Harie Blackwood appears in a Scots language parliamentary record of 12 March 1649 on the Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707 website (http://www.rps.ac.uk/).

Although blazoned on the form as being "on" the fess, the boar as drawn is clearly not "on" the fess but is something closer to "overall" or "surmounting." Commenters should suggest alternative blazons and discuss whether the emblazon is registerable in its current form.

The drawing of the device did not match the submitted blazon. As drawn, the red boar is mostly on the blue field, lacking in contrast. The device therefore must be returned.

15: Novella Soranzo - New Device Forwarded

Per chevron ermine and erminois, in chief a pair of stag's attires proper and in base a bee proper.

The separated antlers are properly blazoned as a pair of stag's attires so I have made that change. In addition, although it does not appear in the Glossary of Terms, by longstanding precedent a bee sable marked Or and winged argent is considered a bee proper. [Aideen the Audacious, September, 1993, pg. 1].

I am very uncertain about the lack contrast between the bee proper and the erminois field. Commentary did not identify a precedent on point. Therefore, I am forwarding the device for guidance from Wreath.

16: Novella Soranzo - New Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) In saltire two brown arrows proper headed and nocked argent and fletched sable and Or, overall a ball of yarn gules.

17: Novella Soranzo - New Badge Returned

(Fieldless) A bee rising proper horned of brown antlers proper.

Eastern Crown took her best stab at a blazon. Any suggestions for improving the blazon will be accepted with gratitude.

This badge must be returned because the posture of the bee is not registerable. By precedent, "[r]ising is not a defined posture for insects. These bees are seen in profile with their wings addorsed and their bodies hovering in intermediate postures between bendwise and palewise. Their posture cannot be blazoned, and therefore, this device must be returned." [Patrick Olsson, 10/2002 LoAR, R-Æthelmearc]. In addition, commenters found the antlers unidentifiable.

18: Østgarðr, Crown Province of - Resub Badge Forwarded

(Fieldless) On a mullet vert a lantern argent.

This submission is to be associated with Order of the Silver Lantern. The Order name Order of the Silver Lantern was registered to the Crown Province of Østgarðr in July of 2012 (via the East).

This is a resubmission of the badge (Fieldless) A lantern argent which appeared on the East's February 21, 2012 ILoI. That badge conflicted with Thomas Ouswood (Sept. 2000, Æthelmearc): Vert, a lantern argent enflamed Or. The Crown Province's submission was pended while we attempted to obtain permission to conflict, which was not forthcoming. This resubmission avoids the conflict by changing the primary charge.

19: Rónán fitz Robert - New Device

Azure, a sword between two dolphins haurient respectant argent.

20: Sadb ingen Domnaill - New Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Argent, three chevronels braced and interlaced and on a chief rayonny azure an escallop Or winged argent.

Sadb is a Middle Irish Gaelic feminine name found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sadb.shtml) with relevant Annals dates of 1048, 1126, 1171, and 1176.

ingen is the patronymic marker used for female Middle Irish Gaelic names, per Apendix A of SENA.

Domnaill is the genitive form of the Middle Irish Gaelic masculine name Domnall, also found in Mari's "Index" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Domnall.shtml) with relevant Annals dates of 974, 976, 980, 981, 1095, 1118, 1122, 1126, 1127, 1135, 1146, and 1168.

With the submitter's permission, the device was redrawn to make the rayonny more recognizable.

21: Séafraidh de Honicombe - New Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Per bend azure and Or, a bee and a full drop spindle counterchanged.

Séafraidh is an Early Modern Gaelic male given name found in Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Seafraid.shtml) with Annals dates throughout the 1200s, 1300s and 1400s.

de Honicombe - R&W s.n. Honeycomb gives Robert de Honicomb' dated to 1327. The ' at the end of place names is almost always a scribal abbreviation for a terminal 'e'

Gaelic and English can be combined under Appendix A of SENA.

The drop spindle is full; as this detail generally is blazoned, I have added it to the blazon.

22: Sláine ben Rónáin meic Robeird - New Device Forwarded

Azure, a squirrel sejant erect contourny maintaining upon a tray argent a wooden goblet proper all within a bordure argent semy of acorns proper.

This device is clear of the device of Kenric Fitzalan (Aug. 2012, Trimaris): Gules, a squirrel contourny argent and a bordure argent semy of acorns sable. There is one DC for the field. There is a second DC for the difference between sable and brown proper. [Owain of Aquaterra, Feb 2006, A-An Tir].

23: Sorcha Dhocair - New Name Forwarded and New Device Forwarded

Per pale purpure and vert, on a lozenge argent a rose proper.

Sorcha is an Early Modern Gaelic female name found in "Index of Names in Irish Annals" by Mari ingen Briain meic Donnchada (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Sorcha.shtml) with Annals dates of 1480, 1500, 1530 and 1639(?).

Docair is an Early Modern Gaelic descriptive byname meaning "[the] Grievous/Troublesome/Difficult (Mischievous)," found in Mari's "Index" (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Docair.shtml) with Annals dates of 1383 and 1387. Dhocair is the lenited form, which is required because this is a feminine name.

The SCA does not consider charged lozenges to be arms of pretense or marshalling:

[on a lozenge argent a fleur-de-lys gules] As per the rules change in the cover letter to the June 2001 LoAR, the fact that the charged shape is not an escutcheon means that this is not an inescutcheon of pretense. ... While this armory is evocative of the city of Florence, whose arms are Argent, a fleur-de-lys gules, it is acceptable.
[Alethea of Shrewsbury, 08/01, A-Lochac]. Therefore I am forwarding this device.

24: Tryggvi Stefnisson - New Name Forwarded and New Device Returned

Vert, a bird volant Or.

Tryggvi is a male given name found at p. 15 of "The Old Norse Name" by Geirr Bassi Haraldsson.

Stefnir is a male given name also found at p. 15 of Geirr Bassi. According to the rules set out in Geirr Bassi for the construction of patronymics, the final -r of Stefnir drops and it becomes Stefnisson.

Unfortunately, this device conflicts with that of Tober Thorvald (March 1978): Vert, an osprey volant proper. There is at most one DC for the tincture of the bird. The August 2012 Cover Letter ruled that generic "birds" are considered "regular shape" birds for the purposes of conflicts. An osprey is a raptor, which is also considered a "regular shape" bird under the November 2003 Cover Letter precedent on bird conflicts. As a result, there is no DC here for type.

25: Védís Iðunardóttir - New Name Forwarded and New Device Returned

Gules, a bird volant argent.

Verthandi appears to be an Anglicized or modernized form of Verðandi, the name of one of the Norns or Fates in Norse mythology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ver%C3%B0andi).

Iðunn is a female given name found in "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók," by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html). Matronymic bynames in Old Norse were ruled registerable on the December 2012 LoAR. [Kitta Kristinsdottir, 12/2012 LoAR, A-Calontir]. Under the rules for constructing Old Norse patronymics and matronymics, names ending in -unn form a genitive with -ar. Iðunn yields Iðunardóttir.

There is an issue with the given name. Norns are supernatural creatures. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica:

Norn, in Germanic mythology, any of a group of supernatural beings who corresponded to the Greek Moirai; they were usually represented as three maidens who spun or wove the fate of men. Some sources name them Urd, Verdandi, and Skuld, perhaps meaning "past," "present," and "future." They were depicted as living by Yggdrasill, the world tree, under Urd's well and were linked with both good and evil. Being frequently attendant at births, they were sometimes associated with midwifery. The name Norn appears only in Scandinavian sources, but the cult of Nornlike beings occurs in several European folklores. In Norse literature the Norns are sometimes called dísir.

SENA PN 4.C states:

C. Claim of Powers: Names may not contain an unmistakable claim of superhuman abilities, magical powers, or divine origin. In general, a name phrase used by normal human beings during our period is not considered to be a claim to superhuman abilities or divine origin. For example, we will register Odinson, because Odin was used as a human given name in Middle English and in Norwegian. Similarly, we will register an English byname Devil, because it is attested as a human descriptive byname in medieval England. On the other hand, we will not register a name like Lokassson as a patronymic constructed from the name Loki, because the only known use of Loki is as the name of an Old Norse god. Such a name would be a claim to a divine origin.
Commenters are asked for assistance in finding evidence of the given name being used by humans in period and for documentation supporting the byname. The submitter has been made aware of this issue.

The name was submitted as Verthandi Iðunardóttir, but no documentation was found for Verthandi as a given name used by humans. After discussing the issue with the submitter, the submitter has opted to change her given name to Védí, which is found in "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók," by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html).

In response to a question raised in commentary, there is evidence that the given name Iðunn was used by humans as well as a precedent permitting its use. From the April 1988 LoAR:

Iduna Snorrisdottir. Name only. As Geirr Bassi gives two examples of "Idunn" used by humans in period, the given name would seem to be acceptable. However, in designing her device she should take care to avoid any allusion to the Norse goddess of the same name (e.g., apples).
This precedent has not been overturned. I have changed the name to Védís Iðunardóttir consistent with the submitter's preferences and am forwarding it in that form.

The device must be returned for multiple conflicts: Gwilym Sais (Oct. 2001, Outlands): Gules, a dove volant argent between three open scrolls Or, with a DC for removing the secondary scrolls, but none for the type of bird; Laurencia of Carlisle (Aug. 2006, East): Per chevron ermine and gules, a swallow volant argent, which has only a single DC for the field; and Sirhan al Siani (Aug. 1998, East): Sable, a heron volant argent, which has only one DC for the field, "as we do not grant a CD between a generic bird and any other specific bird." [Da'ud ibn Auda, LoAR April 1994].

Nunc est bibiendum