Lewis Tanzos
14 November, 2002

Greetings and commendations unto the Heralds and Pursuivants of the East Kingdom, and others who receive this missive, from Tanczos Istvan, Eastern Crown Herald!

This is the Letter of Report (LoR) on the East's Internal Letter of Intent (IloI) dated 27 September 2002, with some errata from a previous LoR. Acceptances on this letter will be sent to Blue Tyger Herald to be included in an External Letter of Intent (XloI) to Laurel and the College of Arms.

As usual, the boldface is the original documentation from the LoI (which is a summary from the submission paperwork), and the normal text after that is my discussion.

In service,
Istvan Eastern Crown


On the 2002-July ILoI and ILoR, the submission for Catheryne Green was discussed. Upon processing the paperwork, it was discovered that the actual submitted name was Catheryne Greene. Since Greene is a header in Reaney & Wilson, with the dated forms as discussed in the July letters, it will be sent to Laurel as Catheryne Greene.


Commentary was received from:

Cnute, Tibor of Rock Valley, Caitlin Davies, Margaret Holmwood, Aryanhwy merch Catmael, Iago ab Adam, Esperanza Razzolini d'Asolo, Elsbeth Anne Roth, Yosef Alaric, Aceline Barrett of Seven Oaks, Meradudd Cethin, and Thomas Flamanc of Kelsale, Genevieve la flechiere, Robert of Canterbury and Sibán nic Ghiolla Phádraig.

1 Alise Whenby (F) - new name accepted & new device returned

Argent, a chevron purpure between two fir trees and a tower vert.

Alise dated in that spelling to 1273 in Talan's "Feminine Given Names in a Dictionary of English Surnames", http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/reaney/reaney.cgi?Alice . Whenby is found, undated, in Cateline de la Mor la souriete's "A Survey of the History of English Placenames" at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/engplnam.html

Talan's article is also found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html, and so does not need photocopies.

Ekwall, pg.488, s.n. Whenby, lists the placename in the header and dates the form Queneby to 1235. Also, A.D.Mills, Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998 [1991]), p. 375, `Whenby' dates the form Quennebi to 1086 (DB) Lastly, there is also the Whenby parrish register that exists from 1556 to 1885 ( http://www.northernresearch.co.uk/parishregisters.htm#Warter)

The device conflicts with that of Kytte Wynpeny (September, 1996 via the Middle): "Argent, a chevron purpure between three roundels vert." There is a single CD for type of secondaries. It is suggested that changing the chevron to any type of complex line except embattled appears to be clear. There may also be a conflict for a chevron cotised.

2 Anne Botman - new device returned

Azure, a water bouget Or.

Conflict with Sebastian ffraser (July, 2001 via An Tir): "(Fieldless) A water bouget Or." with only a single CD for the field. Also with Sebastian's armory: "Per pale gules and azure, a water bouget Or." with only a single CD for the field.

Also conflicts with Constance Grey ( February, 1999 via the Middle): "Azure, three water-bougets Or." with only a single CD for number of primary group.

3 Charles Amesbury de Wiltshire (M) - new name accepted

Name submitted as "Friar Charles de Amesbury, Wiltshire" with absolutely no documentation, we have removed 'Friar' as it is a title and the SCA CoA will not register titles, especially unearned ones.

Charles is in Withycombe, pp. 62-63, s.n. Charles, dates Charles to 1273. Godwyn ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/) English Names Found in Brass Enscriptions lists Charles as well, in 1585.

Amesbury is found in Mills English Place-Names , pp. 9-10, 'Amesbury', Wilts, Ambresbyrig c.880, Ambresberie 1086 (DB), either 'stronghold of a man called 'Ambre' [OE personal name + burh (dative byrig)] or '(disused) stronghold frequented by huntings [first element OE amer]'. It is also in Ekwall, pg. 9, s.n. Amesbury, lists it in the header and dates the form Ambresburch in 932.

Wiltshire is a Header spelling found in Ekwall (p.497 SN:Wiltshire) meaning shire dependant on the Wilton. Mills English Place-Names, lists Wiltshire (the county), Wiltunscir 870, Wiltescire 1086 (DB), possibly 'Shire centered on Wilton (near salisbury) OE scir.

Although multiple bynames is rare in English names, Mari's Period Name Construction letter notes that the construction <Given + Locative + Locative> does exist in extremely late period, with the first locative being unmarked. The first locative would have been inherited, the second would have been an actual byname.

4 Cynthia of Oakenwode - new device accepted

Bendy sinister Or and gules, an oak leaf bendwise sable.

This is clear of Sorcha Careman, (reg. 04/94 West), "Or, semy of acorns gules, an oak leaf bendwise sinister sable," with one CD to the change in field, and one for the removal of the acorns.

Also clear of Eleanor Elspeth Selwin Registered January of 1993 (via the West): Gyronny gules and Or, an oak leaf sable with a CD for the field and one for the change of position of the primary charge.

5 Cynthia of Oakenwode - new badge returned

Per pale gules and sable, a duck naiant argent.

Conflict with "Azure, a swan naiant argent, crowned Or" (Sheryl of Thespos, 1/73). There is 1 CD for the field, but we do not believe that the crown grants a 2nd CD, nor does the type of bird.

6 Dorio of the Oaks - new device accepted

Azure, a hurst of five oak trees argent.

Clear of Blaine de Navarré (February, 1982 via Caid): "Purpure, two trees conjoined in fess argent." with one CD for the field and another for the number of trees.

Unfortunately, it is supposedly not clear of "Vert, a hurst of blasted birch trees argent" (Wyndylyn Leanb Na Doinneann, 9/97 Atenveldt) with only a CD for the field. There used to be a CD for trees v.s. trees blasted, but that was overturned two years ago by Elsbeth: "[a tree blasted and eradicated vs. a tree eradicated] There is no CD between a tree eradicated and a tree blasted and eradicated, as noted in the August 1994 LoAR (Ælfwine Akeworthe, p. 18). This is because there are period depictions of trees with only a few leaves. [Gabriela Silvana, 07/00, R- Outlands]"

However, the Laurel that made that ruling provided commentary on this submission, specifically mentioned this device, and called it clear with a CD for the blastingWow.. Also, the precedent it overturned says: "[oak trees vs trees blasted] Precedent has been mixed, but there was in period a distinction between a tree and tree blasted. Therefore, we are.... granting a CD between a tree and a tree blasted, giving this submission the necessary second CD. (Wolfgang Schwarzwald, 2/98 p. 4)".

Based on the principle that we consider things to be a CD if they were considered different in period - as the older precedent (that of Wolfgang Schwarzwald) says, we are passing this to Laurel for a ruling.

7 Eadwenna aet Hroefnehyrst - resub device accepted

Vert, a bend cotised Or, overall a unicorn rampant argent.

8 Francesco Gaetano Greco de Edessa - transfer household name "House Eastwood"

Administrative transfer of household name to Harold of Eastwood.

Yes, I know this doesn't need to be on an LoI, I'm putting this here so I don't lose it.

9 Geoffrey Bleasdale (M) - new name accepted & new device returned

Per chevron inverted azure and vert, a goutte Or issuant from the base of the division.

Geoffrey is found in Nicolaa's "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272" ( http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/names.html) . Bleasdale is found, dated in that spelling to 1228, in Ekwall's "Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names", p. 48.

Geoffrey is also in Withycombe, p. 128, From ME Geffrey; Goodwyn with spelling Geffrey dated to 1273. Bleasdale is actually dated in Ekwall in the spelling 'Blesedale', though the submitted form is the header form, so it's fine.

The device is not on the proper paperwork, and is being returned for administrative reasons. No full-size emblazons were provided, no black-and-white emblazons were provided. These are required for a submission to be processed.

Also, it is in conflict with a badge for Iulstan Sigewealding (July, 1991 via the West): "(Fieldless) A goutte d'Or". There is a single CD for fieldless, but no CD for placement against a fieldless badge.

10 Guenuureth filia Thomas (F) - new name accepted

Guenuureth is dated in that spelling to the 10th century in Tangwystyl's "Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin Manumissions" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/bodmin/celtic.htm. filia is demonstrated to be appropriate for 9th century Breton in Academy of S. Gabriel Report #1936 at http://www.s-gabriel.org/1936. Thomas is found in the 9th-12th centuries in the "Redon Cartularies", cited in a personal communication from Tangwystyl .

For the given name, Guenuureth is not directly cited in the article, rather it is mentioned in the discussion of Guenbrith:

The closest parallel I can find is feminine Guenuureth in Redon, which there appears to be a variant of Uuenbrit. In the majority of names in Bodmin where the deuterotheme begins with "b" or "m" in the radical, it retains this spelling in the form that appears in the document. However in occasional examples, it appears in spellings that reflect the expected lenition (as "v" or "f"). Therefore it is not impossible that this entry may reflect a phonetic rendering of the lenited pronunciation of "-brit(h)". However there must remain some level of uncertainty. The Bodmin entry has no explicit gender information.
The quote actually strengthens the submitter's case, as it indicates that the given name is cited from the same source as the byname.

For the record, the St. Gabriel report says that an 'Ennoguent filia Aethuric' appears in Cartulaire de L'Abbaye de Redon en Bretagne publie par M. Aruelien de Courson, Paris, Imprimerie Imperiale, 1863. This is the same source that the rest of the name is from.

11 Guillem Gallo (M) - new name accepted & new device accepted

Or, a cock's head couped gules.

Guillem is found in Arval's "Catalan Names from 12th and 13th Century Charters" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catalan/) . Gallo is found in Diez Malcon's " Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses" (non-photocopy list).

In particular, Diez Melcón, pg. 304, lists a Roi Gocaluez Gallo in 1231. The name is Castilian, not Catalan, but we were unable to find a Catalan equivalent.

This should be clear of the badge for Ranulf of the North Country (July 1974), "(Fieldless) A turkey's head erased gules, beaked Or, wearing a horned Viking's helmet Or". There is a CD for adding a field. An examination of the emblazon shows that the helm may be significant, but it also looks like the head is affronty, which is definitely a difference. If this is actually clear, we suggest Wreath re-blazon it for the sake of clarity in the future.

12 Guillem Gallo - new badge accepted

(Fieldless) A cock's head couped gules combed, beaked, and wattled argent.

13 Giuseppina Sciarrino (F) - new name accepted

Guiseppina is found as an undated variant of Guiseppe in De Felice (no mention of which one), p. 196. Guiseppe is found, dated to 1282-1532 in Aryanhwy's "Italian Given Names from the Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" at http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/florence1282-1532.htm. Sciarrino is referenced in Academy of S. Gabriel report #2510, at http://www.s-gabriel.org/2510, with the following comment: " [Sciarrino] seems to be a good choice. It is a modern Sicilian surname...derived from a Sicilian word [sciarrinu] 'a rowdy or troublesome person'. An early form of it appears in a Latin document in the name [Guillelmus Sarrinus] 1333."

St' Gabriel's source for the surname is Girolamo Caracausi, Dizionario Onomastico della Sicilia (Palermo, 1994), s.nn. Sciarra, Sciarrino. The author (Caracausi) notes that 'Sciarra' may also derive from a place name. There is a 'scharri' near Forza d'Agro and a place near Tarpani that appears as 'Xarra' around 1439.

The St. Gabriel letter says that Sciarrino "is a modern Sicilian surname, pronounced \shahr-REE-noh\, that derived from a Sicilian word 'sciarrinu' "a rowdy or quarrelsome person". An early form of it appears in a Latin document in the name 'Guillelmus Sarrinus' 1333. The root word itself ultimately derives from an Arabic word 'sharra'; the Sicilian adaptation of that word was used as a surname around 1298, 'Iohannes Sharra' [3].

In fact, Sciarrino is found in de Felice's cognomi under Sciàrra and Giuseppina is found under Guisèppe in de Felice's nomi. The submitter consistently reversed the 'i' and 'u' on the forms. We have placed it in the form found in nomi.

14 Gwineth Llyn Lloyd - new device accepted

Gules, on a lozenge Or a catamount rampant sable.

There are problems with this device that require a redraw: The catamount should not have tiger stripes. Also, the catamount is overlapping the edges of the lozenge. Since the required changes are all adding straight lines and erasing, Eastern Crown can handle it (and has talked to the herald of record, who said it was OK).

Clear of Sverrir Valthjofsson (June 1999 via Atenveldt): "Gules, on a lozenge Or, a raven displayed sable, in chief a sea-serpent ondoyant Or." with a CD for the change in only type of tertiary as per X.4.j.ii and one for the remoal of the tertiary.

Also clear of "Per saltire sable and gules, on a lozenge Or a sword inverted sable" (Kenwrec FitzRaymund July 1994, atlantia). As there is a CD for the change of field and another for the change of type of tertiary as this should count as simple heraldry.

15 Harold of Eastwood - receive household name "House Eastwood"

Administrative: receive transfer of household name from Francesco Gaetano Greco de Edessa

Yeah, it's fine.

16 Hedinn inn rauði (M) - new name accepted & new device returned

Per fess argent and sable, a demi-mullet issuant from the line of division sable.

Hedinn is found in " The Viking Legends Page", http://www.bec.com.au/armidale/napress/viklgnds.htm . Heðin, which is not the same spelling, is found in Aryanhwy's "Viking Names found in the Landnámabók", at http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm . As the submitter wished, we have changed the submitted name, 'Hedinn the Red', to be more authentic for Scandinavian culture.

Heðinn is found (as Heðin)in Aryanhwy's " Viking Names found in the Landnámabók", at http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/landnamabok.htm and in Geirr-Bassi in the form Heðinn on page 11. inn rauði, "the red" is found at the same web site and on page 26 of Geirr-Bassi. Lastly, the submitted form is in Lind as a header spelling, dated to 1189.

The submitter should be aware that patronymics are the norm for Norse and Scandinavian names, although Geirr Bassi overstates the case when he says that only slaves do not have patronymics.

The device has several problems. We can't tell if the mullet is a mullet of five or of six, so this device is not reconstructable from blazon. Also, the elements (the mullet and the field division) are not individually identifiable, so this violates that Rule for Submission. (VIII.3)

If it is a mullet of six, which is quite plausible with three points showing for half the charge, this conflicts with Gwydion of Blackmoore (August 1993 via the Middle): "(Fieldless) A demi-sun sable." with a single CD for fieldlessness.

17 Iohne MacDavid (M) - new name accepted & new device accepted

Vert, a chevron argent between three dogs rampant Or.

Iohne is referenced as a component of a surname in "13th & 14th Century Scottish Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/symonFreser/scottish14/scottish14_sur.html . MacDhaidh is presented as 'son of Dhaidh or David. One of the kings of Scotland 1124-1153' .

Since 'Iohne' is a Scots rendering of a Gaelic name ("Eoin"), and we can find find no direct documentation for MacDhaidh, we have changed the surname to match the personal name. Black s.n. MacDavid gives the Scots form MacDavid in 1562.

Note that Iohne is also listed as a given name in "13th & 14th Century Scottish Names" (at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/symonFreser/scottish14/scottish14_given.html). It is clearly a Scots name, not a Gaelic name.

The secondary charges are not mastiffs, which both in my modern dog book and, more importantly, in Brault, have dropped ears. They do not even look all that much like dogs (although they do resemble the wolves in Legh). If they are copied from some source (which looks possible), it would be useful to know where, as it may point out a useful source of heraldry. We have blazoned them as 'dogs'

18 Isabel of Rosley - resub device accepted

Azure, a castle and on a chief embattled argent three roses proper.

The submission is now clear of conflict with Michelle of Thescorre (May 1997), " Azure, a castle and on a chief argent, three frogs sejant azure. " with one CD for the change of type of secondary (chief to chief embattled) and one CD for the change in type and tincture of the tertiaries.

19 Janet Kempe - resub device accepted

Purpure, on a pall argent three violets purpure.

20 Johann von Antwerp - resub device accepted

Quarterly argent and azure, two lymphads azure.

The device does not conflict with Lee Sharpeyes (May 1992), "Quarterly argent and azure, four dhows reversed counterchanged." There is a CD for the number of charges, and there is a CD for changing color of half the primary charges (half blue and half white v.s. all blue).

This is also not a conflict with Bogi Bogsveigir Sigvatsson February 2000 (via Meridies): Argent, in pale two drakkars proper sailed azure. There is one CD for the field and a CD for the change of color of the charges. (brown to blue)

21 Nataliia Anastasiia Evgenova Sviatoslavina vnuchka - new device accepted

Gules, three wolves' teeth issuant from sinister argent.

This is clear of Veniamin Nafanovich Medvednikogotev, (06/95 via the West), "Sable three wolf's teeth issuant from dexter argent," with one CD for the field, and one for the placement of the teeth. It is also clear of Ulfhethinn the Bold, (04/96 via Caid), "Sable, two wolf's teeth issuant from sinister argent," with one CD for the field, and one for the number of teeth. It is also probably clear of Stefen of Naught (July 1983), "Gules, three piles issuant from sinister throughout in point argent, each charged to sinister with a mullet of seven points sable." There is a CD for removing the tertiary charges and there is probably another for the difference between a pile throughout and a wolf's tooth.

22 Pierre d'Abbéville (M) - new name accepted & new device returned

Both Pierre and Abbeville from Le Petit Robert, apparently a town that existed in the late 1100's.

Pierre is also found in "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" on the Laurel web site ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html#P). Pierre is also in Withycombe, p. 243 `Peter', biblical name, French 'Pierre' and is found as a header spelling in Morlet's Noms de Famille (p. 784)

Abbeville is mentioned at http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Abbeville_France, which says it first appears in history in the 9th century, and was bombed into nonexistence by the Germans in WWII

Abbeville is in Matthew: Atlas of Medieval Europe ,pp. 165, 208, maps show Abbeville 1135 to 1500. Also, A Gabois, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Medieval Civilization (London: Octopyus Books Limited, 1980), p. 14 shows Abbeville located near the estuary of the Somme in Northern France, from the 9thC.

Azure, a moon-sun per pale rayonny argent and Or between in chief three fleurs-de-lys Or and on a base argent three hearts gules.

The 'moon-sun' is not a recognized charge. If the submitter wishes to use it, documentation for its existence as a period motif (heraldic, artistic, etc) must accompany the submission, as per the Rules for Submission, section VII. No such documentation could be found by commmenters, and thus this must be returned. It is suggested by one extremely knowledgable commenter that this is a modern motif, though a similar effect could be achieved with a sun in splendor per pale argent and Or.

There is a larger problem: The use of three Or fleurs-de-lys on an azure field is forbidden by precedent: [a bordure embattled azure semy-de-lys Or] The device uses azure semy-de-lys Or on a charge, which is forbidden as it appears to be a claim to have an augmentation from France: The period examples are so numerous that I feel I must uphold the Society's ban on gold fleurs-de-lys on blue backgrounds - and make it explicit. Neither France Ancient (Azure semy-de-lys Or) nor France Modern (Azure, three fleurs-de-lys Or) may be used in SCA heraldry, either as the field (or part thereof) or on a charge. To do so constitutes a claim to connection to French royalty, prohibited under Rule XI.1. (July 1992 LoAR, p.23, s.n. Raoul de Chenonceaux) [Reinhard Lowenkop, 06/00, R-Trimaris] , which re-affirmed the precedent: The use of multiple gold fleurs-de-lys on blue is not permitted in SCA armory: it is too strongly suggestive of a claim of connection to French royalty. [BoE, 20 Oct 85]

Lastly, this device has a complexity of eight. (azure, argent, Or, gules, moon-sun(?), fleur-de-lys, base, heart) This is the limit of complexity for devices, and it is strongly suggested the submitter select something simpler for a resubmission.

23 Robert Bury de Okeforde (M) - new name accepted & new device returned

Barry nebuly of six erminois and vert.

'Robert' and 'atte Forde' are both documented from 'The Men Behind the Masque: Office-holding in East Anglian Boroughs, 1272-1460', at http://www.trytel.com/~tristan/towns/mapp1_2a.html. One 'Robert de Bury' is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's 'An Index to the 1332 Lay Subsidy Rolls for Lincolnshire, England' at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/LincLSR/. 'Oak' is dated to period in the OED, though that says nothing about its use as part of a name . Nothing is provided for the second half of, or the construction 'Okesforde'.

Name submitted as Robert de Bury atte Okesforde, we have made a few changes based on some additional documentation:

Robert is in Withycombe, pp. 254-5 from OE Hreodbeorht, reinforced at Conquest by French Robert.

Bury is in Mills' English Place-Names p.65, sn.n 'Bury' dated in several forms between 974 and 1194 It is also in Reaney, p. 32 s.n. 'Berry' dated in several forms between 1202 and 1320 Lastly, is is a header spelling in Ekwall (P. 74 SN:Bury) with dated spellings of singular use from 974 through 1311.

Okesforde is in Mills' English Place-Names with forms dated to 1086 and 1166. It's also in Reaney, p.254, dated to 1296 Lastly, it's in Ekwall, pg. 330, s.n. Oakford, dates the form Ocford to 1224.

There are two issues. One is the form of the name. Ekwall tends not to include forms dated in the 14th - 16th century so it can be difficult to determine what forms were in use then. Ekwall, pl 332, s.n. Okeford, Child, lists that form as a header spelling for a name containing Okeford. Also, on pg. 333, s.n. Okehampton, he dates the form Okemund to 1282. Reaney and Wilson, pg. 327, s.n. Oakden, list the form Okeden in 1332. Also, on pg. 334, s.n. Oxford, they list the form Oxenforde to 1319. Therefore we think that Okeforde is a likely 14th century form.

The other issue is that Okeforde is documented as a regular place name, not a generic place. Thus it would be used with 'de' not 'atte'.

Although multiple bynames is rare in English names, Mari's Period Name Construction letter notes that the construction <Given + Locative + Locative> does exist in extremely late period, with the first locative being unmarked. The first locative would have been inherited, the second would have been an actual byname. As such, the name Robert Bury de Oakford is a plausible constructed name

The device conflicts with Daimhín Sinna, (reg. 03/02 via AEthelmearc), "Barry wavy vert and argent ermined vert." There is one CD for argent ermined vert vs. erminois, but none for wavy vs. nebuly.

Daimhín is still active in the SCA. If the submitter would like to try for a letter of permission to conflict, it can be investigated.

Either significantly changing the partition line or changing the colour vert to another tincture would be sufficient to clear this conflict.

24 Sancha de Flores - new device change accepted

Gules, a columbine slipped and leaved argent.

This may possibly conflict with the badge of Aeruin as Sruth Waleis (July 1991 via the West): "(Fieldless) A daffodil slipped and leaved argent." There is a CD for fieldless. There may or may not be a CD for type of flower. The same issue arises with Gwenllian de L'Isle (November 1991 via the West): "Per pale sable and purpure, a morning glory issuant from base, slipped and leaved argent.", where there is one CD for the field and a possible CD for type.

25 Sancha de Flores new badge accepted

(Fieldless) A columbine gules slipped and leaved argent.

This device has the same possible conflicts as the previous one.

26 Sidonia Zaridina (F) - new name accepted

Sidonia dated to 527-641 in "Common Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the 6th and 7th Centuries" at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/PLRE_fem_names.html. Zaridina is from "Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era", at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/family_names.html; the feminization is found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/structures.html and http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/byzantine/feminizing.html.

The only possible problem with this submission is that the only actual dates provided in the sources are over 600 years apart. This is acceptable according to current rules, but considered grounds for return if there is one more weird thing with the submission. We don't see one, so this passes.

27 Silva Cerdonis - new group name return & new group device return

Or, a four-winged dragonfly displayed and, in base, a laurel wreath purpure.

'Silva Cerdonis' is presented as being Latin for 'Artisan's Wood'. Attached is a personal communication from Steffan ap Kennydd which discusses the meaning and construction of the name in proper Latin, which supports this as the translation of "Artisan's Wood", but provides no support for the name as per the naming practices of the SCA.

"Names of Branches must follow the patterns of period place-names" (Quoting the Rules for Submission, section III.2.b.i)

Although both words may be Latin and may even be found in period documents, unless some evidence of places being named in a similar fashion in period is presented, then the documentation is useless. No such evidence was presented. Nor could commenters find any evidence. As such, we must return this name.

There is an additional reason for return: submissions are required to include a branch designator as part of the name submitted. There is no such designator on the form. (One of the petitions includes a mention of the 'Shire of Sylvan Cerdonis. Please place it on the form.)

The laurel wreath in this submission is not drawn correctly. Precedent states: "'A properly drawn laurel wreath should not have sufficient room between its tips to place another charge. [Darkstone, College of, 02/00, R-Middle]'; [Uma, Shire of, 10/01, R-Drachenwald]". While there's not another charge there, there is certainly part of another charge.

There is also: "[Returning Or, on a hurt an eagle displayed Or and on a bordure azure a laurel wreath Or.] The laurel wreath is not, and indeed on a bordure cannot be, a wreath, which when properly drawn is nearly a closed circle. Rather, here it is 'two sprigs of laurel, stems crossed in base'. [5/94, p.15]"

When resubmitted, please place the name of the group on the forms as the 'SCANAME' of the owner, not the name of a person in that group.

28 Silvia Wilkinson (F) - new name accepted & new device returned

Azure, a fess wreathed between six roses Or.

Silvia is found in Withycombe, p. 270; Wilkinson is found in Reaney & Wilson, p. 493.

Withycombe s.n. Silvia says ""'Rhea Silvia' was the name of the mother of Romulus and Remus, and it was probably from this that came into use as a christian name in Italy at the Renaissance. Shakespeare's use of it for one of the two heroines of Two Gentlemen of Verona is probably responsible for its modern use as a christian name in England." Unfortunately, Withycombe is not reliable when it comes to non-English names. However, precedent states that names from period plays are acceptable:

However, names from period literature may be used, with some caveats.

1. Try other sources first - often better documentation can be found.

2. It has to be a name of a human being in the story. God/dess, elf, dwarf, etc. names aren't usable.

3. Beware of allegorical names in sources such as the English mystery plays. It is extremely unlikely that we would register Everyman as a name, even though it is found as a name of a human being in period mystery plays, unless actual documentation is found for it as a name for a real person.

4. And this is subjective - minor characters from minor works may or may not be acceptable. Especially if they do not fit the naming patterns of the time period. (Jaelle of Armida, CL with the February 1999 LoAR, p. 2)

Silvia is also found in de Felice's Dizionario Dei Nomi Italiani s.n. Silvio, but no arabic date is given (Eastern Crown can't read Italian)

Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Wilkinson, lists that form as a header form and dates Wilkynson to 1332.

Since the personal name is in a literary source in late period England (as per Withycombe) which is within 300 years of the surname citation, we don't have to address the mixed-language and temporal weirdnesses.

As for the device: ordinarys wreathed of a single tincture are not allowed as per this precedent: "A wreathed ordinary must be of two tinctures with good contrast (Eliada of Thun, 09/92, pg. 43)". We must therefore return this device.

29 Temair ingen Muiredaich (F) - resub name accepted & resub device accepted

Per bend sinister rayonny vert and argent semy of grapes purpure, a fox sejant contourny argent.

Temair is found on p. 170 of O'Corrain & Maguire, "Irish Names", dated to 655; it was also found in "Early Irish Feminine Names from the Index to O'Brien's Corpus Genealogiarum Hiberniae" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/obrien/), which Tangwystyl has removed from publication as she no longer considers it reliable . Inghean is found in "Quick and Easy Gaelic Names" by Euphrick ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/quickgaelicbynames/index.shtml ). Muiredaich is found, dated to before the 12th century, in Tangwystyl's "100 Most Popular Men's Names in Early Medieval Ireland" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/irish100/) . It is given in the genitive form.

Temair is found in O'Corrain & Maguaire, which dates this name to 655. (p. 170 SN:Temair).

Muiredach is also in O'Corrain &l Maguaire, which dates this name to 702. (p 141, SN:Muiredach).

The submitter states that she thinks that her byname means daughter of Morgan. The Gael predecessor to Morgan is Muchad (ibid, p 142, SN:Murchad) dating to 727., not Muiredach.

We have changed the patronymic 'inghean' to the earlier-period form 'ingen' to match the dates of the documentation.

The submitter may want to know that the given name is not pronounced "tammar", but something closer to 'Tara', as per the following discussion in St. Gabriel report #2177 ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/2177)

Please note that within the given period, 'Temair' was pronounced \T~EV-ahr~\ [3]. The notation \T~\ represents a palatalized \T\, i.e. \T\ pronounced with your tongue arched to touch the roof of your mouth. The result is sort of like combining \T\ with the \y\ sound in , and isn't far from the sound \tch\. \r~\ also represents a palatalized sound, but one that's harder to explain. The explanation of \t~\ is a rough guide, but to really understand it you'll need to find someone who speaks Gaelic or Russian, another language that uses these sounds [4]. Note that 'Temair' was _not_ pronounced \te-MARE\, as it is commonly mispronounced in modern English.

[3] The \V\ sound in 'Temair' and is actually a nasalized, voiced bilabial fricative, i.e., a nasalized version of the Spanish \v\ in 'Havana'. You can produce it by saying \m\, but opening your lips slightly to let some of the airstream 'buzz' out between them. If you can someone who speaks Russian, ask him to pronounce the word for "now", 'teper'. Properly pronounced, it starts with a palatalized \t\ and ends with a palatalized \r\.

30 Temair ingen Muiredaich - resub badge accepted

Purpure, a fox sejant contourny argent within a bordure ermine.

Clear of Freydís ór Thelamörk (February 1992 via the East): "Purpure, a fox sejant within a bordure argent. "

One CD for change of secondary tincture. One for change of facing. Clear.

31 Tommaso Valeriano - resub device accepted

Per bend sable and purpure, a sword between six mullets two, two, and two argent.

32 Violante Lourenço (F) - new name accepted & new device accepted

Per saltire sable and gules, a moon in her plenitude within a bordure argent.

Both names are from Juliana de Luna's "Portugese Names 1350-1450" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/portugese).

The article is also found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/portuguese.htm , which does not require photocopies. In particular, Violante is listed as a women's given name, and Lourenço is listed as a patronymic byname.

'Violante' is also found nine times and once in Lisbon in 1565, according to "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" ( http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~sfriedemann/names/lisbon1565.htm). 'Lourenço' is a patronymic, and is found three times in the same source.