20 July, 2006
Unto Elisabeth Laurel, Jeanne Marie Wreath, Margaret Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Blue Tyger Herald!
It is the intent of Easterners to register the following items. Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity and allows any changes.
( Fieldless ) A standing seraph gules maintaining a cup and standing atop an open book Or.
Alys Mackyntoich registered in Feb. 2005 via the East. Brunissende Dragonette de Brocéliande registered in Sept. 2004 via the East.
Sisterhood: the The Oxford English Dictionary lists 'sisterhood' as a collective noun meaning either: "2a. A society of sisters; esp. a society of women who have taken certain vows and live together under conventional rule, or who are otherwise devoted to religious life, or to charitable work as a vocation" ( dated in this usage to 1592 in the works of both Marlowe and Shakespeare ) , or "2b. Used loosely to denote a number of women having some common aim, characteristic, or calling. Often in a bad sense." ( This meaning is dated to 1609. ) The submitters believe that 'sisterhood', therefore; should be considered a valid household designator.
Saint Walburga was an English-born abbess ( b. 710 -d. 779 ) . She was canonized by Pope Adrian II ( c. 792-872 ) . She is the patron saint against coughs, famine, plague, storms, dog bites, mad dogs, hydrophobia, and rabies; of Antwerp and Oudenarde, Belgium; Groningen and Zutphen, Holland, and the diocese of Plymouth, England; and of harvests, boatmen, mariners, sailors, and watermen. ( This and other information on St. Walburga is found in the Patron Saints Index at http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintw02.htm, and under "Walburga, Saint" in the Encyclopedia Britannica Online at http://www.britannica.com/. )
Conflict was called at kingdom against Seraphina Aglaia ( Oct. 1990 Middle ) : ( Fieldless ) A seraph gules, counting only one CD for fieldlessness because the book was interpreted as a maintained charge, and hence not significant enough to be worth a difference. Most other commenters disagreed, saying that the book is much too large to be considered maintained. The submitter was asked if they wished to redraw this badge, and asked that it be forwarded to Laurel in the current form for a ruling.
Per bend azure and sable, in bend three decrescents argent.
Anna appears in Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "Given Names from Brittany, 1384-1600" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/latebreton.html ) , dated to 1519 and 1531. Anna also appears in A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson s.nn. Punnett ( 1199 ) , Strangeway ( 1501 ) , Debdale ( 1511 ) , Brennan ( 1512 ) , and Semple ( 1515, 1524 ) . It also appears in Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ) , dated to 1480.
la Claire or le Claire: Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France by Albert Dauzat at p. 377 gives the header forms 'Leclair' and 'Leclere', without dates. Dauzat hypothesizes the sources of these names as 'le clair' and 'la claire' respectively. See also p. 133 s.n. Clair, which has 'Claire' as a potential occupational surname. In addition, A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson s.n. Claire, at p. 98 lists Richard Clare 1317, Simon le Clayere 1279, and Richard le Cleyere 1305.
It also is in Marie-Therese Morlet: Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille p. 606 s.n. Leclair, which gives several possible derivations for this name, including a matronymic, or a locative indicating origin from Claire ( Seine-Maritime ) , but no dates.
3. Brocciardus di Monte ( m ) - New Name
Brocciardus appears once in Juliana de Luna's "Masculine Names from Thirteenth Century Pisa" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/pisa/pisa.html ) . The names in this article were recorded in Latin. The author gives probable vernacular forms for common names, but with only one instance, Brocciardus is hardly common. It does use the common Latin masculine ending '-us', however, so Eastern Crown's guess at a vernacular form is Brocciardo. Absent actual documentation for this speculation, however, she's unwilling to make this change.
The byname is from the list of given names from the "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" ( Florentine Renaissance Resources: David Herlihy, R. Burr Litchfield, & Anthony Molho, eds.; ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/name1.html ) , which indeed lists Monte as a masculine name, with 52 occurrences. Based on the information on naming patterns found in Aryanhwy's "Names from Arezzo, Italy, 1386-1528" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/arezzo.html ) , the appropriate form for a patronymic based on this name is di Monte; based on the Pisa article ( cited above for the given name ) , a possessive form like Monti is also possible.
Submitted at kingdom as Brocciardus da Monte, the list of surnames from the Tratte ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/SURNAM1.html ) lists three instances of del Monte, and over a hundred of Monti, but nothing like the submitted da Monte. ( The article records patronymics separately from surnames, and the particle used with the patronymics is not recorded in the database. )
Judging by the choice of citation for the byname, the submitter desires a patronymic; because it's the smallest change, the byname has been changed to di Monte to better match the available documentation.
4. Brunissende Dragonette de Brocéliande ( f ) - New
No changes. Her primary name was registered in Sept. 2004 via the East.
This name follows the pattern given name + article + occupational byname seen countless times in the 1292 Paris census.
Chrestienne la crespinière is found in Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ) .
The surname, pescheresse, is from Colm Dubh's "An Index to the Occupational By-Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html ) as the feminine form of an occupational byname meaning "Fisher".
Argent, a chevron engrailed between three ravens sable.
His previous name, James of Falworth, and device, Per chevron Or, mulletty of six points azure, and sable, in base a sea lion erect Or, all within a bordure engrailed counterchanged sable and Or, were registered in Jan. 1987 via the East. If this submission is registered, his previous device is to be released. No disposition is given for the old name.
Clement is in Guntram von Wolkenstein's "German Names from Kosice, 1307 - 1505" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/kosice.htm ) , which dates Clement Czypsser 1485. Talan Gwynek's "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm ) dates Clement to 1350, 1384, 1394, and 1397.
Eicke is found in Deutsches Adels-Lexicon by Ernst Heinrich Kneschke ( Leipzig, 1861 ) , vol. 3 p. 62 s.n. Eicke. The entry begins with a blazon ( Argent, a water chicken standing in reeds on the water vert, holding a fish in its beak ) . The family is described as "old", 14th century, with one Betzkone ( Peczko ) Eicke receiving the device around 1342. Bahlow/Gentry p. 97 s.n. Eicke says that this surname may derive from a variant of Eiche 'oak', and s.n. Eich ( same page ) , he has the dated example Cunrad zur Eiche 1298. This name uses the definite article, indicating a generic locative ( for a dwelling near an oak tree, or a house name ) , but the entry mentions that in some cases, this surname may derive from place-names like Eich or Eichen, in which cases the preposition "von" would be appropriate. Under Eick, Bahlow mentions a place called Eyck on the Maas river, the birthplace of the famous 15c. Dutch painters, the brothers van Eyck. Under this same header, he also mentions a place called Eicken near Melle, and says the family name von Eicken derives from it, but gives no dates. Based on these Dutch and German place names, a place called "Eicke" seems plausibly period ( and may in fact have existed ) , making the submitted "von Eicke" a reasonable possibility.
6. Cristina D'Este ( f ) - New Name
Cristina is in Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale's "Italian Women's Names," http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html, as a 14-15c. Florentine name.
Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek's "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/ ) , in the surname section, lists D'Este as "the name of an important Venetian family." Cristina is listed in the given names section of the same article.
7. Cristoforo da Fubine ( m ) - New Name
If his name must be changed, he cares most about an unspecified meaning and language/culture. The documentation consists of printouts of "Milanese Notaries 1396-1635" by Maridonna Benvenuti ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/milaneseNotaries/ ) and a webpage in Italian titled "Fubine" at http://www.ilmonferrato.info/cs/fubine/fubine1.htm.
The cited "Milanese Notaries 1396-1635" lists one instance of Cristoforo as a masculine given name. The name is also found in "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" by Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/ ) .
Fubine is the modern name of a town in northern Italy, in the province of Alessandria, which is part of the region of Piedmont. Eastern commenters noted the existence of multiple websites that suggest ( through less than fully-reliable automated translations ) that Fubine existed and was known by that name in the Middle Ages, but these sites are not in English, and none of the commenters can read Italian. An automated translation of the original site is attached, but not particularly comprehensible. Please help.
Or, two crows displayed respectant sable and a salmon haurient gules.
No major changes. Her name was registered in Aug. 1997 via the East.
This device probably conflicts with the arms of Germany, the Holy Roman Empire, and Russia, which are all some version of Or, an eagle displayed sable ( with minor variations, such as the number of heads or the presence of maintained objects, which do not count for difference ) . There is definitely one CD for changing the number of primary charges, but there definitely isn't one for the change in type of bird, because crows are not found displayed in period armory ( 01/00 CL ) . ( There is also a "weirdness" for using displayed non-eagles, per the same precedent. ) But is there a second CD for the fish? Per precedent, the bottom charge of a two-and-one arrangement counts as half the charge group ( Letia Thistelthueyt, 12/01 A-Atlantia ) , and changes affecting at least half of a group normally count as a CD. However, as one commenter put it, "it'd be cheating to say 'Oh, I added two eagles, but then changed them to roses, so I've got one CD for number, and one for type.'" Under this interpretation, there is definitely conflict.
The July 2005 Cover Letter states two basic principles to be followed when counting difference: use the smallest possible number of steps to get from the registered to the submitted armory, and don't hypothesize any intermediate armory. However, these principles do not clear up this case. If we were comparing the submission to, say, "six eagles displayed," then the principles would be clear: there's one CD for number of charges, and one for changing half the charge group to fish. But it doesn't make sense to talk about "half the charge group" when there's only one charge ( unless it's some weird avi-piscine monster, in which case we'd probably be clear by X.2... ) . The interpretation where we add two black birds and then change one to a red fish is clearly wrong: it hypothesizes an intermediate step of Or, three birds sable, violating the second principle of the Cover Letter. The smallest step that one can take between "one black bird" and "two black birds and a red fish" is "add a black bird and a red fish." But does the presence of the word "and" mean that this is really two steps ( 1. add a bird, 2. add a fish ) , and therefore two changes? Eastern Crown is forwarding this device in the hopes that Wreath can clear up this question.
9. Elysabeth Underhill ( f ) - New Name
Elysabeth is dated to 1524 in A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson s.n. Hugh; and also in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html ) .
Underhill is dated to 1520 in Julian Goodwyn's "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ) .
10. Erec le Clair ( m ) - New Name & New Device
Per saltire sable and vert, in pale an increscent argent and a sun in splendor Or.
If his name must be changed, he cares most about sound.
Erec is from Erec et Enide by Chrestien de Troyes ( 1135 - c.1185 ) . Erec was the name of a person, specifically a knight in Arthur's court. "Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature as there is a pattern of such names being used in England and France in period." ( Bedivere de Byron, 06/99, A-Atlantia ) . Erec is a header in Flutre; on p. 69; it and its variants are found in several medieval romances including, but not limited to, Erec et Enide by Chrestien de Troyes ( c. 1135-1183 ) .
le Claire: Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France by Albert Dauzat at p. 377 gives the header forms 'Leclair' and 'Leclere', without dates. Dauzat hypothesizes the sources of these names as 'le clair' and 'la claire' respectively. See also p. 133 s.n. Clair, which shows 'Claire' as an potential occupational surname. In addition, A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition by P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson s.n. Clare, at p. 98 lists Richard Clare 1317, Simon le Clayere 1279, Richard le Cleyere 1305.His byname has been changed from le Claire to correct the gender. Morlet's Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Familes p. 606 s.n. Leclair says this is a nickname meaning "the fair ( -skinned ) ".
11. Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi - New
Her name was registered in December of 2004 (via the East).
The East Kingdom is entirely wimping out on this one. If the name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning. The documentation quotes from RfS II.B.3. 'Household Names', and mentions 'Middle Kingdom Archers' ( 02/00 R-Middle ) and 'Company of Artificers of Marinus' ( registered to Marinus, Barony of in Sep. 1996 via Atlantia ) . In this submission, 'Known World' is like 'Middle Kingdom' or 'Marinus', and 'Choir' is like 'Archers' or 'Company of Artificers'.
No other documentation seems to have been provided, either by the submitter or commenters. Please help.
12. Griffyn Cleisiog ap Madoc - New Badge
( Fieldless ) Three sharks naiant conjoined in annulo azure.
His name was registered in Dec. 1990 via the East.
13. Hobbe Yonge - New Device
Purpure, a crow and on a chief raguly Or, three gouttes de larmes.
His name appeared on the May 2006 East Kingdom Letter of Intent.
14. Isabel Paulo ( f ) - New Name & New Device
Per chevron sable and vert, a wagon wheel Or and in chief three increscents argent.
If her name must be changed, she cares most about the meaning '14th century Portuguese meaning daughter of Paula ( my father's surname ) '.
Isabel is from Juliana de Luna's "Portuguese Names 1350-1450" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/portuguese.htm ) , which shows 'Isabell' as a documented name in Portugal between 1350 and 1450. The alternate spelling of 'Isabel' is documented for Castillian women, living in Portugal, in the same time period. Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/lisbon1565.html ) lists Isabel ( 139 instances, tied with Maria at the top of the frequency list ) as a feminine given name.
Ary's article also lists Paulo ( 5 instances ) and Paullo ( 3 instances ) as masculine given names, and Paullo ( one instance ) as a patronymic surname. In addition, "Portuguese Names from the 16th Century Letters from the Court of King John III" by Juliana de Luna ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/portugal16/ ) lists both Isabel and Paullo.
15. Johanna de Glastingburi ( f ) - New Name
If her name must be changed, she cares most about an unspecified meaning. Talan's "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html ) lists Johanna with dates ranging from 1189 to 1220.
Victor Watts, ed.: The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names ( Cambridge University Press, 2004 ) s.n. Glastonbury has Glastingburi dated to a 14th c. copy of a manuscript from 725. This same manuscript is also cited ( with a date of 725 ) in A.D. Mills, Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names, p. 144 s.n. Glastonbury.
16. Marion del Okes - New Badge
( Fieldless ) A cup Or charged with three oak leaves bendwise sinister vert.
Her name was forwarded to Laurel on the East's April 2006 Letter of Intent.
17. Pascual de la Mar - New Badge
Argent goutty de sang, a hand in benediction between two pallets sable.
His name was registered in Oct. 2004 via the East.
18. Sabine de Kerbriant - New Device
Azure, on a chief indented Or three pommes.
A precedent ( William the Navigator, 04/88 R-Outlands ) listed in a conflict table for lines of division indicated that no difference is granted between indented and wavy, causing a conflict with Myfanwy of Oakwell ( Nov. 1986 West ) : Gyronny argent and azure, on a chief wavy Or three fountains. Discussion showed that the cited precedent was made under the old rules. The current standard for conflict is generally, "were they considered different in period?" Because wavy and indented appear to have been distinct types of partition line in period, we are forwarding this to Laurel and asking that the precedent be overturned. Her current name was registered in May 2003, via the East. Her name change submission, to this name from Sabine Kerbriant de Lanvaux, is on the East's May 2006 Letter of Intent.
19. Syele von Heidelberg ( f ) - New Name & New Device
Azure, a garb and on a chief argent, a griffin passant gules.
Client requests authenticity for German language/culture.
Syele is a 15th century German feminine name, found in Talan Gwynek's "15th Century German Women's Names" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/germ15f.html )
Heidelberg is a German university town on the Neckar River, first referred to as Heidelberg in 1196 in a document in Schönen Monastery, according to http://www.cvb-heidelberg.de/e553/e885/index_eng.html. The Encyclopedia Britannica On-Line's entry for Heidelberg ( http://www.britannica.com/ ) confirms that this placename is "first mentioned in 1196"; the article also says that the university "was chartered by Pope Urban VI in 1386".
20. Symonne Lentaigne ( f ) - New Name & New Device
Azure, a spiral hunting horn and a chief embattled argent.
If her name must be changed, she cares most about French language/culture. She requests authenticity for 15th century French language/culture.
Symonne is a French feminine name found in "French Names from Paris 1423" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/paris1423.html ) .
The surname was documented by the submitter from a family geneaology. Commenters were unable to find the exact spelling "Lentaigne", but they came pretty close: Morlet's Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille has the following:
All of the items on this LoI are new. I count 10 names, 1 name change, 8 devices, 1 device change, 4 badges, 2 household names, and one alternate name. This is a total of 27 actions. A check for $68 will be submitted to Laurel under a separate cover.
Until next month, I remain,
Istvan Blue Tyger
Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek. "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/ )
Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "French Names from Paris 1423" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/paris1423.html )
Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "Names from Arezzo, Italy, 1386-1528" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/arezzo.html )
Aryanhwy merch Catmael. "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/lisbon1565.html )
Bahlow, Hans; translated by Edda Gentry. Dictionary of German Names, 2nd ed. Max Kade Institute, Madison, Wisconsin, 2002.
Benvenuti, Maridonna "Milanese Notaries 1396-1635" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/milaneseNotaries/ )
Catholic Community Forum, Patron Saint's Index: Walburga. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintw02.htm.
Colm Dubh; "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html ).
Colm Dubh; "An Index to the Occupational By-Names in the 1292 Census of Paris"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html ).
Dauzat, Albert; Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et des Prénoms de France; Larousse, Paris, 1987.
de Troyes, Chrestien. Erec et Enide ( http://omacl.org/Erec/ )
Encyclopedia Britannica Online http://www.britannica.com/.
Flutre, Louis-Fernand ; Table des Noms Propres avec toutes leurs Variantes Figurant dans les Romans du Moyen Ages Ecrits en Français ou en Provençal et Actuellement Publiés ou Analysés . Centre D'Études Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale. Poitiers, France: 1962.
Guntram von Wolkenstein; "German Names from Kosice, 1307 - 1505"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/kosice.htm ).
Herlihy, David; Litchfield, R. Burr; & Molho, Anthony, eds.; "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" ( Florentine Renaissance Resources: ( http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/name1.html )
Julian Goodwyn; "English Names found in Brass Enscriptions"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/ ).
Juliana de Luna. "Portuguese Names from the 16th Century Letters from the Court of King John III" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/portugal16/ )
Juliana de Luna; "Portuguese Names 1350-1450"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/portuguese.htm ).
Kneschke, Ernst Heinrich. Deutsches Adels-Lexicon ( Leipzig, 1861 )
Mills, A.D. A Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 1991.
Morlet, Marie-Therese; Dictionaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille; Perrin, 1991.
Reaney, P.H. & R.M. Wilson; A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition; Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York, 1991.
Rhian Lyth of Blackmoor Vale. "Italian Women's Names," http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/italian.html
Talan Gwynek; "15th Century German Women's Names"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/germ15f.html ).
Talan Gwynek; "Feminine Given Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyintro.html ).
Talan Gwynek; "Medieval German Given Names from Silesia"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/bahlow_v.htm ).
Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn; "Given Names from Brittany, 1384-1600"; ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/latebreton.html ).
Watts, Victor. The Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names. Cambridge University Press, 2004.