[SEAL] Lewis Tanzos
Tanczos Istvan

23 October 2006

Unto Elisabeth Laurel, Jeanne Marie Wreath, Margaret Pelican, the SCA College of Arms, and all others who do receive this letter, greetings from Tanczos Istvan, Blue Tyger Herald!

It is the intent of Easterners to register the following items. Unless otherwise noted, the submitter has no desire for authenticity and allows any changes.

1 Cecily Carlyll (f) - New Name

No major changes. If her name must be changed, she cares most about the sound. She desires an authentic 15th century English name.

Cecily is found in Talan Gwynek's "Feminine Names in A Dictionary of English Surnames" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/reaneyAG.html) under Cecilia, dated to 1246 (Gorrell), 1279 (Will), and 1523 (Hutchin). Cecily can also be found dated to 1428 in Julian's Brass Enscription Index (op. cit.), so this is an authentic 15th c. English name.

Carlyll is found in Julian Goodwyn's "Index of Names in Brass Enscriptions" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/), dated to 1489 (from Bedfordshire).

2 Ceilidh McBain (f) - New Name

No changes.

Ceilidh is her mundane first name.

"Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names" by Sharon L. Krossa ( http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/lowland16/), in the section on surnames, lists a single instance of the surname Bain, dated to 1502. Black p. 457 s.n. MacBean gives M'Bane 1513 and mc behan 1539, among others. McBain has also been previously registered as the SCA surname of one parent, and forwarded to Laurel as the surname of her other parent and as the name of a household.

Cristoforus de Hastings3 Cristofre de Hastings - New to Laurel Device

Per bend argent and sable, a Latin cross vert and a cat's head cabossed argent.

His name was registered on the June 2006 LoAR. His previous device, Per bend argent and sable, a cross humetty sable and a cat's head cabossed argent, was returned at kingdom for conflict with Eadric the Wild (Feb. 1999 via Meridies): Per bend argent and sable, a cross formy and a pheon counterchanged; this device changes the tincture of the cross to clear that conflict. The return also noted some artistic issues with the cross humetty; this submission features a Latin cross instead.

Deroch the Wine Trader4 Deroch the Wine Trader (f) - New Name & New Device

Per fess argent and sable, three mullets of four points gules, azure, and Or.

No changes. Academy of S. Gabriel report 869 ( http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?869+0) identifies Deroch as a 9th-11th century Breton feminine name (citing De Courson, M. Aurélien; Cartulaire de L'Abbaye de Redon en Bretagne, Paris: Imprimerie Imperiale, 1963), and says "In these documents, women were usually identified either by relationship to a husband or father or by occupation."

The byname "the Wine Trader" may be a plausible Lingua Anglica translation of such an occupation: Colm Dubh's "Occupational By-names in the 1292 Tax Roll of Paris" ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/parisbynames.html) lists two instances of the feminine bufetiere, meaning "wine seller", as well as the masculine bynames courratier de vins "wine broker" and bufetier, vinetier "wine seller." The Anglo-French version of this latter (viniter, vineter, vinter) is found in R&W p. 468 s.nn. Vintner, Vintiner, glossed as "wine merchant," with several 12th century cites. Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary (Dorset & Baber, New York, 1983) defines 'trader' as "one who is engaged in trade or commerce; a merchant" (p. 1934, col. 2).

The use of three different tinctures for the three mullets is considered a step from period practice, but registerable (Timur al-Badawi, 07/03 A-Artemisia). Although there isn't technically a conflict, this device is strongly evocative of the logo of the Pittsburgh Steelers football team (which can be seen at http://media3.steelers.com/). Kingdom has decided to punt the decision of whether or not that's a problem to Laurel.

Drueta de la Rosa5 Drueta de la Rosa - New Badge

(Fieldless) A rooster rising argent, crested and wattled gules, beaked and taloned Or.

Her name and device (Gules, three bendlets sinister ermine) were registered in Apr. 2006 via the East.

Ah, birds... The following possible conflicts depend on whether there is a CD between a rooster rising and a swan rousant, a crow rising, an egret rising (wings displayed), or an owl rising (wings displayed), respectively: Henry V of England (12/94 via Laurel), (Fieldless) A swan rousant wings addorsed argent ducally gorged and chained Or; Jehan de la Marche (01/73), Gules, a crow rising, pierced by an arrow, both argent; Widsith Devona of Exmoor (07/01 via Atenveldt), Per bend sinister sable and vert, a snowy egret rising wings displayed argent; and Mora de Buchanan (01/05 via Caid), Per chevron purpure and vert, an owl rising guardant wings displayed argent.

Dubhghall Docair Mac Thamhais6 Dubhghall Docair Mac Thamhais (m) - New to Laurel Name & New to Laurel Device

Gules, on a chevron cotised argent three Latin crosses palewise gules and in sinister chief a two-headed wyvern displayed argent.

No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about the language/culture of Scotland.

Dubhghall is the standard Early Modern Gaelic spelling of a name recorded as dubghall (where the 'h' is an editorial expansion of a scribal abbreviation) in 1467. It is found in "Scottish Gaelic Given Names: For Men: Names of Scottish Gaels from Scottish Gaelic Sources" by Sharon L. Krossa as the name of a Scottish Gaelic scribe in Ireland at http://www.medievalscotland.org/scotnames/gaelicgiven/men/dubhghall.shtml.

Mari's "Index of Names in Irish Annals" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/AnnalsIndex/) mentions a different Irish Gaelic descriptive byname with the desired meaning: Docair, dated 1373 and 1387, defined as "[the] Grievous / Troublesome / Difficult (Mischievous)."

Mac Thamhais is mentioned as the Gaelic antecedent to the header MacTavish in Black p.566. The entry dates Doncan M'Thamais to 1355, among others.

Originally submitted as Dubhghall Draghail Mac Thamhais, the submitter claimed that Draghail is a Gaelic word meaning 'bothersome, troublesome or annoying'. It appears to be a specifically Scottish Gaelic word: commenters did not find it in various Irish dictionaries. The School Gaelic Dictionary by Malcolm MacFarlane ( http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MF2/index.html) defines it as 'bothersome, troublesome, annoying', while the "Dictionary of Terms" at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/dictionary/gedt-16.asp#dr defines it as 'worried, worrying'. Based on a Google search, it's definitely a word used in modern Scottish Gaelic, but we have no idea whether it's a period word, let alone a period byname. Email correspondence with the submitter indicates that while he would prefer the submitted byname, he will accept the change to the documented Irish one.

His original in-kingdom name submission (Buchquannan Mac Thamhais of Cruach Mor) was returned for lack of a given name -- the submitted name is entirely composed of surnames. His original in-kingdom device submission (sort of Gules, in sinister chief a two-headed wyvern statant erect affronty, wings displayed, and in base on a chevron cotised argent three Latin crosses gules) was returned for style problems. Abased, cotised ordinaries were banned in 06/03.

7 Gruffydd Abernethy (m) - New Name

No changes.

R&W p. 206 s.n. Griffith dates Gruffyd ap Madog Vnyon to 1392. Gruffydd is mentioned as the most typical Welsh spelling of this name toward the end of the period 1300-1600 in Academy of S. Gabriel report 2260 ( http://www.panix.com/~gabriel/public-bin/showfinal.cgi?2260+0), citing Morgan & Morgan.

Black p. 3 says a Sir Alexander de Abernethy swore fealty in 1296, and mentions others by this name as appearing as vassals of the de Morevilles. Abernethy is a Scottish place name; the fact that "Aber-" is also a Welsh place name element (meaning "river mouth", common in such Welsh place names as Aberystwyth) appears to be entirely fortuitous.

The combination of Welsh (the spelling of the given name) and Scots (the documented spelling of the surname) is considered one step away from period practice, but registerable (Anton Cwith, 08/01 A-Ansteorra).

8 Kenneric Aubrey (m) - New Name

If his name must be changed, he cares most about the sound.

Kenneric is found in the Merioneth Lay Subsidy Roll of 1292-3, according to Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" ( http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html).

Bardsley p. 171 mentions a John Aubrey as sheriff of Norwich in 1460, and R&W p. 19 s.n. Aubray dates Robert Aubrey to 1279.

Lourenco Coelho do Buraco9 Lourenço Coelho do Buraco (m) - New Name & New Device

Argent, a fig leaf bendwise and a chief embattled vert.

Lourenço is found in "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/lisbon1565.html) as a masculine given name.

Coelho is found in "Portuguese Names from the 16th Century" by Juliana de Luna ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/portugal16.htm) as the surname of three different men in the compiled data.

do Buraco is constructed as a toponymic byname meaning 'of the hole' (de + o = do 'of the', buraco 'hole'), based on the Oxford Portuguese Dictionary (Berkely Books, New York, 1998; p. 25), and on examples of toponymic bynames based on various land formations found in Aryanhwy's Lisbon article (op. cit.), such as do Prada 'of the field or meadow', da Rocha 'of the rock', do Rego 'from the trench, furrow, ridge of land', da Veiga 'from the large open plain or field', and Carreyro 'straightway, path'. This article mentions that a less common construction of men's names was the form given name + descriptive + locative.

Casa do Buraco10 Lourenço Coelho do Buraco - New Household Name & New Badge
Submitted Name: Casa do Buraco

Argent, a hare courant sable and a chief embattled vert.

This household name is based on names of ruling dynasties such as 'House of Anjou', using a constructed toponymic byname meaning "of the hole" in Portuguese. This definition, along with the word casa meaning "house", is found in the Oxford Portuguese Dictionary (Berkely Books, New York, 1998; pp. 25, 31). "Portuguese Names from Lisbon, 1565" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/lisbon1565.html), in the section on locative and toponymic surnames, shows a few examples of names based on land formations: do Prado 'of the field or meadow', da Rocha 'of the rock', do Rego 'from the trench, furrow', da Veiga 'from the large open plain, field'. Also, under Other Surnames, there is an entry for Carreyro 'straightway, path'.

Westcastle11 Nigell Westcastle (m) - New Name & New Device

Sable, on a tower argent a heart gules, in chief a pair of rapiers tips crossed in saltire proper.

Withycombe (3rd ed.) p. 228 s.n. Nigel mentions Nygell and Nigelle dated to 1460; the submitted header spelling seems a not unreasonable variant. R&W s.n. Neal has filius Nigelli 1086, 1221; Nigelli 1195; and Nicholaus Nigelle 1252; Aryanhwy's "Names in the 1319 Subsidy Roll of London" ( http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/london1319.html) has the ablative form Nigello twice.

Westcastle is a header in R&W p.482; the dated cites are Alan dictus biwestcastel 1263-4 and Alan Biwestcastel 1274-5. The modern spelling of 'castle' can be found for example on p. 86 s.n. Castleford: Thomas Castleford 1375.

Submitted as Nigel_ Westcastle, the extra 'l' has been added at kingdom to better match period documentation.

There was some debate at kingdom as to whether the rapiers are in a blazonable, reproducable position. Kingdom has declined to rule on this question.

12 Saikhan Saran - New Name

No changes. The submitter doesn't care what gender the name is. The name is meant to be Mongolian, meaning 'beautiful moon'.

The Mongols by Catriona Mcpherson (Compleat Anachronist no. 54) states that the second element of most Mongol names is an epithet related to the first name or to personal characteristics or clan identification. Saikhan meaning 'beautiful, pretty' is found in "Mongolian Naming Practices" by Marta as tu Mika-Mysliwy, in the section titled 'Epithets and Modifiers from Other Sources'. It is also found (used as a single-element masculine name) on a website titled "The Story of Shan Yu - The Blue Wolf of Mongolia" ( http://dragonfly.cox.miami.edu/Tian/huns.html). The website mentions a date of 462.

Saran meaning 'moon, month' is found in An Introduction to Classical (Literary) Mongolian by Kaare Grønbech and John R. Krueger (2nd ed., Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden; 1955, 1976; ISBN 3 447 01661 2), p. 74. It is also found on a website of Mongolian etymologies ( http://starling.rinet.ru/) under the protoform *sara (meaning 'moon'), as one of the Middle Mongolian forms of this word. (The database seems to have moved, slightly, due to the death of the compiler. See http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?basename=\data\alt\monget for the actual Mongolian parts: do a new query, under 'middle mongolian' type 'sara' and hit return.) One of the help pages says: "The databases presented here had been developed for several years by the Department of Comparative Linguistics and Ancient Languages of the Russian State University of the Humanities."

13 Stephanus de Londres (m) - New Name

No major changes. If his name must be changed, he cares most about an unspecified language/culture, and the alliteration of Stephanus de Londres. He requests authenticity for an unspecified time period.

Stephanus is found as a Latin variant of Stephen in Talan Gwynek's Men's Given Names from Early 13th Century England at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/eng13/eng13m.html. R&W p. 426 s.n. Stephen lists Stephanus capellanus 1134-40.

The locative byname de Londres is found in "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" by Colm Dubh ( http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html): Aalèz fame feu Jehan de Londres and Matelin de Londres, pastéer.

There is some question whether the desired alliteration is actually present: In the modern French pronunciation of Londres, the 's' would be silent, and the written (Latinized) form Stephanus likely represents a spoken 'Stefan'.

There are 10 new personal names, 5 new devices, 2 new badges, and 1 new household name; for a total of 18 new actions. There are no resubmissions or administrative actions on this letter. $72 in payment will be forwarded separately.

Until next month, I remain,

   Istvan Blue Tyger


Only sources cited in an abbreviated form are listed here; works that are cited in full in the text are omitted. Works in boldface are on the No-Photocopy List.

Bardsley, Charles Wareing; A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames; Heraldry Today, Wiltshire, England, 1988.

Black, George F; The Surnames of Scotland; New York Public Library, New York, 1946.

MacFarlane, Malcolm: The School Gaelic Dictionary. Eneas MacKay, Bookseller; Stirling, 1912. Electronic version by Caoimhín P. Ó Donnaíle and Ruth Melton at Sabhal Mór Ostaig, the Gaelic college on the Island of Skye. Html by John T. McCranie, SFSU.

Morgan, T.J. and Prys Morgan, Welsh Surnames; University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1985.

Reaney, P.H. & R.M. Wilson; A Dictionary of English Surnames, Revised Edition; Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York, 1991.

Withycombe, E.G.; The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, Third Edition; Oxford University Press, New York, 1977.